The Indian Moose (Emblem 7)

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The Indian Moose (Emblem 7)

Poem #73

Original Source

Hester Pulter, Poems breathed forth by the nobel Hadassas, University of Leeds Library, Brotherton Collection, MS Lt q 32

Versions

  • Facsimile of manuscript: Photographs provided by University of Leeds, Brotherton Collection

  • Transcription of manuscript: By Leah Knight and Wendy Wall.
  • Elemental edition: By Leah Knight and Wendy Wall.
  • Amplified edition: By Millie Godfery and Sarah C. E. Ross.

How to cite these versions

Conventions for these editions

The Pulter Project: Poet in the Making

  • Created by Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
  • Encoded by Katherine Poland, Matthew Taylor, Elizabeth Chou, and Emily Andrey, Northwestern University
  • Website designed by Sergei Kalugin, Northwestern University
  • IT project consultation by Josh Honn, Northwestern University
  • Project sponsored by Northwestern University, Brock University, and University of Leeds
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X (Close panel)Notes: Transcription

 Editorial note

In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.
Line number 1

 Physical note

above cancelled “do,” cancelled “doth,” scribbled out; above that, “doth” in different hand from main scribe
Line number 5

 Physical note

single illegible blotted letter
Line number 12

 Physical note

“ro” and “ers” written over other indecipherable letters
Line number 19

 Physical note

corrected from “at,” or reverse
Line number 23

 Physical note

superscript and subscript in different hand from main scribe
Sorry, but there are no notes associated with any currently displayed witness.
X (Close panel)Transcription
Transcription

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
[Emblem 7]
The Indian Moose
(Emblem 7)
The Indian Moose
(Emblem 7)
In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
Our priority in editing these poems has been to modernise, and to achieve interpretative and visual clarity, in order to make the poems as accessible as possible to as wide a modern audience as is possible. Spelling is modernised, as is punctuation. Modernising the latter, in particular, often involves a significant act of editorial interpretation, but in our view this is one of the most productive areas of editorial intervention, particularly for a manuscript text such as Pulter’s where the punctuation is erratic compared to modern usage (and, indeed, compared to early modern printed texts).
1. See Alice Eardley, “‘I haue not time to point yr booke … which I desire you yourselfe to doe’: Editing the Form of Early Modern Manuscript Verse”, in The Work of Form: Poetics and Materiality in Early Modern Culture, ed. Ben Burton and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 162-178.
1
All biblical references are to the King James Version (1612).

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
What can we learn from the parenting habits of moose, apes, and eagles? Pulter proffers two lessons from the fauna whose examples she assembles here. The first is that we should show all our children “equal love”: the alternative is to spoil favorites, possibly to death, and neglect others so badly that they degenerate. This is the speaker’s lesson, which she points exclusively toward herself by poem’s end, as if it’s a principle she has trouble practicing. But mid-poem, her attention strays to the salutary way in which the moose (like human exemplars, biblical and mercantile) never puts her eggs in one basket but distributes her offspring widely so they cannot all be attacked at once. This pragmatic lesson has little to do with the high-minded invocation of equitable love: why are they in the same poem? So much is not clear; however, more than one of Pulter’s poems alludes to her far-flung daughters and her desire to bring them home. Perhaps the moose’s example made their distance seem more strategic, and thus more bearable; while the invocation to love all her offspring equally countered an impulse to do otherwise.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
Pulter’s focus in this poem is on parental love and the equal “manifest[ation]” of this to one's children (line 16). She draws on William Wood’s depiction of the Indian moose in his New England’s Prospect, commending the animal’s equal division of “comforts” and “care” between her “three young” offspring ([1635], 16-19, esp. 18; lines 1-2). Utilising the moose as her predominant emblem in the poem, Pulter proceeds to compare the moose’s parental strategies with those of other animals, including the ape and the eagle, beasts that she criticises for their unequal division of affection between their young. Engaging in the discourses of Wood, Pliny, and Aesop, this emblem is indicative of the ways in which Pulter's emblems draw on esteemed literary, philosophical, and classical texts for her own didactic purposes.
Pulter’s message of equal love develops and modifies slightly at line seven of the poem, as she emphasises the more strategic aspects of the “policy” by which the moose distributes her children as an act of preservation (line 7). Pulter salutes this unbiased act of separation as she observes the way that parenthood is at the mercy of chance. Several of her occasional lyrics indicate Pulter’s own struggle as mother of children who lived elsewhere, suggesting that Pulter champions the moose as an example of parental sacrifice; see The Invitation into the Country [Poem 2] and To My Dear Jane, Margaret, and Penelope Pulter, They Being at London, I at Broadfield [Poem 38] for examples of Pulter’s occasional lyrics addressing her separation from her children. Her own experience of maternal loss—13 of her 15 children having pre-deceased her—must also have made her particularly sensitive to the devastating role chance could play in parenting.
The poem itself acts as an instructive emblem aimed at parents, a divergence from the audience of children often addressed in her emblem collection; see, for instance, Come, My Dear Children (Emblem 2) [Poem 68] and Doves and Pearls (Emblem 36) [Poem 101]. “The Indian Moose” therefore illustrates the multiple layers of moral address Pulter achieves throughout her emblem collection. Pulter directly acknowledges her intended audience in line 15, stating “Let parents learn by what is writ above”. This imperative appears similarly in The Manucodiats (Emblem 5) [Poem 71], which evokes the emblem of manucodiats—birds-of-paradise—as “transcend[ent]” examples of parental love; here, Pulter employs a similar command, stating “Let parents then learn here indulgency” (lines 10, 16).
Despite her instruction to parents, the final line of Emblem 7 takes a “psalmic” turn inward, as Pulter appeals (indirectly) to God, desiring her own edification as a good protestant mother (Rachel Dunn [Zhang], “Breaking a Tradition: Hester Pulter and the English Emblem Book”, The Seventeenth Century, 30.1 [2015], 55-73, 64). This is a significant feature of Pulter’s emblem collection as she often begins by providing a description of the emblem, followed by an explication of the moral, and then a conclusion of self-reflection, as characterised by an inward turn, to reflect upon her own mortal position as a virtuous protestant mother, wife, and royalist. For more on this aspect of Pulter’s emblem collection and a clear example, see Mighty Nimrod (Emblem 1) [Poem 67], esp. note to line 21 of our Amplified Edition.


— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
1
7The Indian Mooze three Young at once
Physical Note
above cancelled “do,” cancelled “doth,” scribbled out; above that, “doth” in different hand from main scribe
do^dothdoth
bear
The
Critical Note
As Eardley notes, this account appears to be based in William Wood’s description of the moose in New England’s Prospect (London, 1634), p. 21.
Indian moose
three young at once doth bear,
Critical Note
Pulter’s source for this emblem is William Wood’s New England’s Prospect, a text aimed at giving a “true, lively, and experimental description” of the New England colony in the north-eastern region of America. Wood writes of moose that “They have generally three at a time, which they hide a mile from another, giving them sucke by turnes; thus they doe, that if the Woolfe should finde one, he might misse of the other” (New England’s Prospect [1635], 16-19, esp. 18). See also The Stately Moose (Emblem 27) [Poem 92] for another description of the moose by Pulter, as she again draws on Wood’s description of the animal to highlight God as the only constant within the “frail” and “casual” aspects of life (line 39).
The Indian moose three young at once doth bear,
2
Which trebles both her Comforts and her care
Which
Gloss Note
triples
trebles
both her comforts and her
Gloss Note
attention, nurture, or protection, but also trouble, concern
care
.
Which
Gloss Note
triples; increases threefold (OED 1)
trebles
both her comforts and her care;
3
Them equally Shee lovs none worst or best
Them equally she loves, none worst or best:
Them equally she loves, none worst or best
4
Not like the Ape Which doth her love Attest
Not like the ape which doth her love attest
(
Critical Note
in Aesop’s fable “Ape and her two Cubs”, apes are said always to give birth to twins, one of which the mother loves and cares for, while the other she neglects. The consequence of this is that the one attended to is suffocated to death by the loving clasp of its mother’s arms, while the neglected one is “safe as safe could be” (Aesop improved, or, Above Three Hundred and Fifty Fables, mostly Aesop’s [1673], 67). Pliny also gives an account of apes in his Natural History, describing them as being “wondrous[ly] fond of their little ones … that in the end with very little clasping and clipping they kill them many times” (The Historie of the World: Commonly Called, the Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. Trans. Philemon Holland. Vol. 1 [1635], 231).
Not like the ape
which doth her love
Gloss Note
use as evidence(OED); demonstrate
attest
5
By hugling that Shee loves untill it
Physical Note
single illegible blotted letter
Die[?]
By
Gloss Note
an obsolete form of “hugging”
huggling
that she loves until it die;
By
Physical Note
MS = “hugling”
hugging
that she loves until it
Physical Note
MS = a single illegible letter follows this word; “Die[?]” which has been blotted over
die
;
6
The other wraleing at her back hangs by)
The other,
Critical Note
complaining (the manuscript has “wraleing,” which Eardley proposes as “wrawling,” meaning inarticulate crying).
railing
, at her back
Critical Note
The ape’s “other” infant might simply be clinging to its mother’s back, but a “hang-by” was a term of contempt for a hanger-on; given this and some senses of the verb “to hang,” the phrase might suggest the baby ape’s parasitical or burdensome dependence.
hangs by
.
The other,
Critical Note
inarticulate bawling, squalling (OED 1). MS = “wraleing”. Note that the Elemental Edition of this poem modernises this to “railing”, meaning complaining. Our edition aligns itself with Eardley’s, who proposes “wrawling” as the modernised form of “wraleing” (Poems, Emblems, and The Unfortunate Florinda [Toronto: Iter and Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2014], 195 n. 53.
wrawling
, at her back hangs by).
7
To See her Policye would make one wonder
To see
Gloss Note
i.e., the moose’s
her
policy would make one
Gloss Note
marvel
wonder
,
To see her
Gloss Note
a stratagem (OED 3); also meaning principle, or course of action (OED 4). Pulter is referring to the moose’s strategy of separating her children to prevent multiple deaths; see note to line 1.
policy
would make one wonder,
8
In placeing everyone a Mile a Sunder
In placing
Gloss Note
i.e., every one of her young
every one
a mile asunder,
In placing
Gloss Note
each one of the moose’s three calves
every one
a
Gloss Note
a mile apart (OED 1)
mile asunder
,
9
That if her ffoes on one of them Should lite
That if her foes on one of them should light,
That if her
Gloss Note
specifically wolves, as outlined by William Wood (see note to line 1)
foes
on one of them should
Gloss Note
see, notice
light
,
10
The other two are Sav’d by this Sleight
The other two are savéd by this
Gloss Note
stratagem, cunning policy, cleverness
sleight
.
The other two are saved by this
Gloss Note
cunning strategy employed to deceive (OED 1)
sleight
.
11
The Patriark Soe diuided his three bands
The
Critical Note
The manuscript has “patriarch,” altered here to fit the meter. Eardley identifies the patriarch here as the biblical Jacob, who divided his children into three separate groups, so that his estranged brother Esau could not attack all at once (Genesis 33:1).
patr’arch so divided his three bands
,
Critical Note
“The patriarch” is the biblical Jacob, who was regarded as the Patriarch of Israelites after being blessed with the name Israel following his fight with a divine being on his way home to Canaan; see Gen. 32. Jacob famously tricks his older twin Esau out of his father’s blessings, fulfilling God’s prophecy that “the elder shall serve the younger” (KJV Gen.25:23). To escape Esau’s murderous jealousy, Jacob flees to Harran where he creates his own family. On their return to his homeland of Canaan where Esau is leader, and upon hearing his brother is approaching with an army of four hundred, Jacob divides his children between his two wives and handmaids, hoping that if Esau attacks one group, the others will be saved; see Gen. 33. Pulter draws parallels between this biblical narrative and Wood’s account of the Indian moose, demonstrating how both use a similar strategy of dividing their children into groups in the hope that not all will be attacked. Pulter’s approval of the practice of separating children may also have had royalist implications: the plot to remove Charles’s younger brother James to France in April 1648 was crucial to the survival of the royal family (W. A. Speck. “James II and VII.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography [2004]).
The patriarch so divided his three bands
12
To Save them from his Cruell
Physical Note
“ro” and “ers” written over other indecipherable letters
Brothers
hands
To save them from his cruel brothers’ hands.
To save them from his
Gloss Note
Esau, Jacob’s brother, who desires murderous revenge after Jacob tricks him out of his father’s blessings; see note to previous line.
cruel brother’s hands
;
13
Soe Merchants will not venter all they have
So merchants will not venture all they have
So merchants will not
Gloss Note
an act or occasion of trying one’s chance or fortune (OED 3); gamble; play with chance
venture
all they have
14
Within three Inches of the Swelling Wave
Within three inches of the swelling wave.
Within
Critical Note
Lines 13-14 refer to the wariness merchants feel in placing all their fortune in one ship, given the unpredictable nature of the sea. For a representation of this, see Antonio and Salarino’s opening conversation in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, where Antonio makes it clear that “My ventures are not in one bottom trusted, / Nor to one place” (Edited by John Drakakis [London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011], 1.1.41-2). Pulter compares the strategies of merchants to those of good parents who do not place all their worth in one child.
three inches of the swelling wave
.
15
Let Parents Learn by what is writ above
Let parents learn by what is writ above
Let parents learn by what is writ above
16
To manifest to Children equall Love
To manifest to children equal love:
To manifest to children equal love.
17
Not Like the Eagle who her Young doth trie
Not like the
Gloss Note
Eardley, citing Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Natural History (1.272), explains Pulter’s next zoological exemplar: “it was a commonplace that eagles force their young to gaze on the sun in order to test their worthiness. Those that fail the test turn into kites, birds of prey considered inferior to the eagle.”
eagle
, who her young doth try
Not like
Critical Note
In Pliny’s Natural History, the eagle is described as a violent mother: “she only before her little ones be feathered, will beat and strike them with her wings, and thereby force them to looke full against the sun beames: now if she see any one of them to winke, or their eies to water at the raies of the sun, she turns it with the head forward out of the nest, as a bastard, and not right, nor none of hers; but bringeth up and cherisheth that whose eye will abide the light of the sun, as she looks directly upon him” (The Historie of the World: Commonly Called, the Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. Trans. Philemon Holland. Vol. 1 [1635], 272). In keeping with her emblem’s thematic concern with parenting, Pulter draws on this depiction of the mother eagle to criticize her favoring of the stronger over the weaker, a policy which rejects the equal giving of love that Pulter encourages.
the eagle
, who her young doth
Gloss Note
test, put under trial (OED 2)
try
18
By the Tranſcendent brightnes of her Eye
By the transcendent brightness of
Gloss Note
that is, Sol’s, or the sun’s (in the next line)
her
eye;
By the transcendent brightness of her eye;
19
Thoſe which cant Stare
Physical Note
corrected from “at,” or reverse
on
Sols Refulgent fface
Those which can’t stare on
Gloss Note
the sun’s
Sol’s
Gloss Note
radiant, bright
refulgent
face,
Those which can’t stare at
Gloss Note
the Latin word for sun, and the Roman god of the sun
Sol’s
Gloss Note
shining with, or reflecting, a brilliant light; radiant, resplendent; gleaming, lustrous (OED 1).
refulgent
face,
20
Shee Diſesteems as Baſtard Brats and Baſe
She
disregards, despises
disesteems
as bastard brats and base;
She
Gloss Note
regards lightly, thinks little (or nothing) of; slights, despises (OED 1a)
disesteems
as
Critical Note
Here, base means of lower, inferior quality (OED 7a). For the association of “bastard” and “base”, see Edmund’s soliloquy in Shakespeare’s King Lear, I.II.6, 10: “Why bastard? Wherefore base? ... “Why brand they us with base, base, bastardy”. Eardley punctuates this as “bastard, brats, and base”; however, in this context, both our edition and the elemental edition interpret “bastard” as an adjective for “brat” as opposed to a noun.
bastard brats and base
;
21
Theſe wanting then her Noble Education
These,
Gloss Note
lacking
wanting
then her noble education,
These, wanting then her noble education,
22
Degenerate to kites and keep their ffashion
Degenerate to
Gloss Note
a type of bird of prey; also, in Pulter’s time, a term of reproach
kites
and keep their fashion.
Degenerate to
Gloss Note
a term of reproach or destestation (OED 2). For another use of the term in this sense, see Antony’s address in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, III.VIII. 89: “Ah, you kite!” “Kites” are also birds of prey regarded as inferior to eagles (OED 1).
kites
and keep their fashion.
23
Soe
Physical Note
superscript and subscript in different hand from main scribe
\itt’istis \
when Parents doe a difference make
So ’tis when parents do a difference make:
So ’tis when parents do a difference make;
24
Then O that Councell let mee ever take
Then, O, that counsel let me ever take.
Then O! That counsel let me ever take.
horizontal straight line
X (Close panel)Notes: Elemental Edition

 Editorial note

The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.

 Headnote

What can we learn from the parenting habits of moose, apes, and eagles? Pulter proffers two lessons from the fauna whose examples she assembles here. The first is that we should show all our children “equal love”: the alternative is to spoil favorites, possibly to death, and neglect others so badly that they degenerate. This is the speaker’s lesson, which she points exclusively toward herself by poem’s end, as if it’s a principle she has trouble practicing. But mid-poem, her attention strays to the salutary way in which the moose (like human exemplars, biblical and mercantile) never puts her eggs in one basket but distributes her offspring widely so they cannot all be attacked at once. This pragmatic lesson has little to do with the high-minded invocation of equitable love: why are they in the same poem? So much is not clear; however, more than one of Pulter’s poems alludes to her far-flung daughters and her desire to bring them home. Perhaps the moose’s example made their distance seem more strategic, and thus more bearable; while the invocation to love all her offspring equally countered an impulse to do otherwise.
Line number 1

 Critical note

As Eardley notes, this account appears to be based in William Wood’s description of the moose in New England’s Prospect (London, 1634), p. 21.
Line number 2

 Gloss note

triples
Line number 2

 Gloss note

attention, nurture, or protection, but also trouble, concern
Line number 5

 Gloss note

an obsolete form of “hugging”
Line number 6

 Critical note

complaining (the manuscript has “wraleing,” which Eardley proposes as “wrawling,” meaning inarticulate crying).
Line number 6

 Critical note

The ape’s “other” infant might simply be clinging to its mother’s back, but a “hang-by” was a term of contempt for a hanger-on; given this and some senses of the verb “to hang,” the phrase might suggest the baby ape’s parasitical or burdensome dependence.
Line number 7

 Gloss note

i.e., the moose’s
Line number 7

 Gloss note

marvel
Line number 8

 Gloss note

i.e., every one of her young
Line number 10

 Gloss note

stratagem, cunning policy, cleverness
Line number 11

 Critical note

The manuscript has “patriarch,” altered here to fit the meter. Eardley identifies the patriarch here as the biblical Jacob, who divided his children into three separate groups, so that his estranged brother Esau could not attack all at once (Genesis 33:1).
Line number 17

 Gloss note

Eardley, citing Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Natural History (1.272), explains Pulter’s next zoological exemplar: “it was a commonplace that eagles force their young to gaze on the sun in order to test their worthiness. Those that fail the test turn into kites, birds of prey considered inferior to the eagle.”
Line number 18

 Gloss note

that is, Sol’s, or the sun’s (in the next line)
Line number 19

 Gloss note

the sun’s
Line number 19

 Gloss note

radiant, bright
Line number 20
disregards, despises
Line number 21

 Gloss note

lacking
Line number 22

 Gloss note

a type of bird of prey; also, in Pulter’s time, a term of reproach
Sorry, but there are no notes associated with any currently displayed witness.
X (Close panel)Elemental Edition
Elemental Edition

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
[Emblem 7]
The Indian Moose
(Emblem 7)
The Indian Moose
(Emblem 7)
In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
Our priority in editing these poems has been to modernise, and to achieve interpretative and visual clarity, in order to make the poems as accessible as possible to as wide a modern audience as is possible. Spelling is modernised, as is punctuation. Modernising the latter, in particular, often involves a significant act of editorial interpretation, but in our view this is one of the most productive areas of editorial intervention, particularly for a manuscript text such as Pulter’s where the punctuation is erratic compared to modern usage (and, indeed, compared to early modern printed texts).
1. See Alice Eardley, “‘I haue not time to point yr booke … which I desire you yourselfe to doe’: Editing the Form of Early Modern Manuscript Verse”, in The Work of Form: Poetics and Materiality in Early Modern Culture, ed. Ben Burton and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 162-178.
1
All biblical references are to the King James Version (1612).

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
What can we learn from the parenting habits of moose, apes, and eagles? Pulter proffers two lessons from the fauna whose examples she assembles here. The first is that we should show all our children “equal love”: the alternative is to spoil favorites, possibly to death, and neglect others so badly that they degenerate. This is the speaker’s lesson, which she points exclusively toward herself by poem’s end, as if it’s a principle she has trouble practicing. But mid-poem, her attention strays to the salutary way in which the moose (like human exemplars, biblical and mercantile) never puts her eggs in one basket but distributes her offspring widely so they cannot all be attacked at once. This pragmatic lesson has little to do with the high-minded invocation of equitable love: why are they in the same poem? So much is not clear; however, more than one of Pulter’s poems alludes to her far-flung daughters and her desire to bring them home. Perhaps the moose’s example made their distance seem more strategic, and thus more bearable; while the invocation to love all her offspring equally countered an impulse to do otherwise.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
Pulter’s focus in this poem is on parental love and the equal “manifest[ation]” of this to one's children (line 16). She draws on William Wood’s depiction of the Indian moose in his New England’s Prospect, commending the animal’s equal division of “comforts” and “care” between her “three young” offspring ([1635], 16-19, esp. 18; lines 1-2). Utilising the moose as her predominant emblem in the poem, Pulter proceeds to compare the moose’s parental strategies with those of other animals, including the ape and the eagle, beasts that she criticises for their unequal division of affection between their young. Engaging in the discourses of Wood, Pliny, and Aesop, this emblem is indicative of the ways in which Pulter's emblems draw on esteemed literary, philosophical, and classical texts for her own didactic purposes.
Pulter’s message of equal love develops and modifies slightly at line seven of the poem, as she emphasises the more strategic aspects of the “policy” by which the moose distributes her children as an act of preservation (line 7). Pulter salutes this unbiased act of separation as she observes the way that parenthood is at the mercy of chance. Several of her occasional lyrics indicate Pulter’s own struggle as mother of children who lived elsewhere, suggesting that Pulter champions the moose as an example of parental sacrifice; see The Invitation into the Country [Poem 2] and To My Dear Jane, Margaret, and Penelope Pulter, They Being at London, I at Broadfield [Poem 38] for examples of Pulter’s occasional lyrics addressing her separation from her children. Her own experience of maternal loss—13 of her 15 children having pre-deceased her—must also have made her particularly sensitive to the devastating role chance could play in parenting.
The poem itself acts as an instructive emblem aimed at parents, a divergence from the audience of children often addressed in her emblem collection; see, for instance, Come, My Dear Children (Emblem 2) [Poem 68] and Doves and Pearls (Emblem 36) [Poem 101]. “The Indian Moose” therefore illustrates the multiple layers of moral address Pulter achieves throughout her emblem collection. Pulter directly acknowledges her intended audience in line 15, stating “Let parents learn by what is writ above”. This imperative appears similarly in The Manucodiats (Emblem 5) [Poem 71], which evokes the emblem of manucodiats—birds-of-paradise—as “transcend[ent]” examples of parental love; here, Pulter employs a similar command, stating “Let parents then learn here indulgency” (lines 10, 16).
Despite her instruction to parents, the final line of Emblem 7 takes a “psalmic” turn inward, as Pulter appeals (indirectly) to God, desiring her own edification as a good protestant mother (Rachel Dunn [Zhang], “Breaking a Tradition: Hester Pulter and the English Emblem Book”, The Seventeenth Century, 30.1 [2015], 55-73, 64). This is a significant feature of Pulter’s emblem collection as she often begins by providing a description of the emblem, followed by an explication of the moral, and then a conclusion of self-reflection, as characterised by an inward turn, to reflect upon her own mortal position as a virtuous protestant mother, wife, and royalist. For more on this aspect of Pulter’s emblem collection and a clear example, see Mighty Nimrod (Emblem 1) [Poem 67], esp. note to line 21 of our Amplified Edition.


— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
1
7The Indian Mooze three Young at once
Physical Note
above cancelled “do,” cancelled “doth,” scribbled out; above that, “doth” in different hand from main scribe
do^dothdoth
bear
The
Critical Note
As Eardley notes, this account appears to be based in William Wood’s description of the moose in New England’s Prospect (London, 1634), p. 21.
Indian moose
three young at once doth bear,
Critical Note
Pulter’s source for this emblem is William Wood’s New England’s Prospect, a text aimed at giving a “true, lively, and experimental description” of the New England colony in the north-eastern region of America. Wood writes of moose that “They have generally three at a time, which they hide a mile from another, giving them sucke by turnes; thus they doe, that if the Woolfe should finde one, he might misse of the other” (New England’s Prospect [1635], 16-19, esp. 18). See also The Stately Moose (Emblem 27) [Poem 92] for another description of the moose by Pulter, as she again draws on Wood’s description of the animal to highlight God as the only constant within the “frail” and “casual” aspects of life (line 39).
The Indian moose three young at once doth bear,
2
Which trebles both her Comforts and her care
Which
Gloss Note
triples
trebles
both her comforts and her
Gloss Note
attention, nurture, or protection, but also trouble, concern
care
.
Which
Gloss Note
triples; increases threefold (OED 1)
trebles
both her comforts and her care;
3
Them equally Shee lovs none worst or best
Them equally she loves, none worst or best:
Them equally she loves, none worst or best
4
Not like the Ape Which doth her love Attest
Not like the ape which doth her love attest
(
Critical Note
in Aesop’s fable “Ape and her two Cubs”, apes are said always to give birth to twins, one of which the mother loves and cares for, while the other she neglects. The consequence of this is that the one attended to is suffocated to death by the loving clasp of its mother’s arms, while the neglected one is “safe as safe could be” (Aesop improved, or, Above Three Hundred and Fifty Fables, mostly Aesop’s [1673], 67). Pliny also gives an account of apes in his Natural History, describing them as being “wondrous[ly] fond of their little ones … that in the end with very little clasping and clipping they kill them many times” (The Historie of the World: Commonly Called, the Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. Trans. Philemon Holland. Vol. 1 [1635], 231).
Not like the ape
which doth her love
Gloss Note
use as evidence(OED); demonstrate
attest
5
By hugling that Shee loves untill it
Physical Note
single illegible blotted letter
Die[?]
By
Gloss Note
an obsolete form of “hugging”
huggling
that she loves until it die;
By
Physical Note
MS = “hugling”
hugging
that she loves until it
Physical Note
MS = a single illegible letter follows this word; “Die[?]” which has been blotted over
die
;
6
The other wraleing at her back hangs by)
The other,
Critical Note
complaining (the manuscript has “wraleing,” which Eardley proposes as “wrawling,” meaning inarticulate crying).
railing
, at her back
Critical Note
The ape’s “other” infant might simply be clinging to its mother’s back, but a “hang-by” was a term of contempt for a hanger-on; given this and some senses of the verb “to hang,” the phrase might suggest the baby ape’s parasitical or burdensome dependence.
hangs by
.
The other,
Critical Note
inarticulate bawling, squalling (OED 1). MS = “wraleing”. Note that the Elemental Edition of this poem modernises this to “railing”, meaning complaining. Our edition aligns itself with Eardley’s, who proposes “wrawling” as the modernised form of “wraleing” (Poems, Emblems, and The Unfortunate Florinda [Toronto: Iter and Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2014], 195 n. 53.
wrawling
, at her back hangs by).
7
To See her Policye would make one wonder
To see
Gloss Note
i.e., the moose’s
her
policy would make one
Gloss Note
marvel
wonder
,
To see her
Gloss Note
a stratagem (OED 3); also meaning principle, or course of action (OED 4). Pulter is referring to the moose’s strategy of separating her children to prevent multiple deaths; see note to line 1.
policy
would make one wonder,
8
In placeing everyone a Mile a Sunder
In placing
Gloss Note
i.e., every one of her young
every one
a mile asunder,
In placing
Gloss Note
each one of the moose’s three calves
every one
a
Gloss Note
a mile apart (OED 1)
mile asunder
,
9
That if her ffoes on one of them Should lite
That if her foes on one of them should light,
That if her
Gloss Note
specifically wolves, as outlined by William Wood (see note to line 1)
foes
on one of them should
Gloss Note
see, notice
light
,
10
The other two are Sav’d by this Sleight
The other two are savéd by this
Gloss Note
stratagem, cunning policy, cleverness
sleight
.
The other two are saved by this
Gloss Note
cunning strategy employed to deceive (OED 1)
sleight
.
11
The Patriark Soe diuided his three bands
The
Critical Note
The manuscript has “patriarch,” altered here to fit the meter. Eardley identifies the patriarch here as the biblical Jacob, who divided his children into three separate groups, so that his estranged brother Esau could not attack all at once (Genesis 33:1).
patr’arch so divided his three bands
,
Critical Note
“The patriarch” is the biblical Jacob, who was regarded as the Patriarch of Israelites after being blessed with the name Israel following his fight with a divine being on his way home to Canaan; see Gen. 32. Jacob famously tricks his older twin Esau out of his father’s blessings, fulfilling God’s prophecy that “the elder shall serve the younger” (KJV Gen.25:23). To escape Esau’s murderous jealousy, Jacob flees to Harran where he creates his own family. On their return to his homeland of Canaan where Esau is leader, and upon hearing his brother is approaching with an army of four hundred, Jacob divides his children between his two wives and handmaids, hoping that if Esau attacks one group, the others will be saved; see Gen. 33. Pulter draws parallels between this biblical narrative and Wood’s account of the Indian moose, demonstrating how both use a similar strategy of dividing their children into groups in the hope that not all will be attacked. Pulter’s approval of the practice of separating children may also have had royalist implications: the plot to remove Charles’s younger brother James to France in April 1648 was crucial to the survival of the royal family (W. A. Speck. “James II and VII.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography [2004]).
The patriarch so divided his three bands
12
To Save them from his Cruell
Physical Note
“ro” and “ers” written over other indecipherable letters
Brothers
hands
To save them from his cruel brothers’ hands.
To save them from his
Gloss Note
Esau, Jacob’s brother, who desires murderous revenge after Jacob tricks him out of his father’s blessings; see note to previous line.
cruel brother’s hands
;
13
Soe Merchants will not venter all they have
So merchants will not venture all they have
So merchants will not
Gloss Note
an act or occasion of trying one’s chance or fortune (OED 3); gamble; play with chance
venture
all they have
14
Within three Inches of the Swelling Wave
Within three inches of the swelling wave.
Within
Critical Note
Lines 13-14 refer to the wariness merchants feel in placing all their fortune in one ship, given the unpredictable nature of the sea. For a representation of this, see Antonio and Salarino’s opening conversation in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, where Antonio makes it clear that “My ventures are not in one bottom trusted, / Nor to one place” (Edited by John Drakakis [London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011], 1.1.41-2). Pulter compares the strategies of merchants to those of good parents who do not place all their worth in one child.
three inches of the swelling wave
.
15
Let Parents Learn by what is writ above
Let parents learn by what is writ above
Let parents learn by what is writ above
16
To manifest to Children equall Love
To manifest to children equal love:
To manifest to children equal love.
17
Not Like the Eagle who her Young doth trie
Not like the
Gloss Note
Eardley, citing Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Natural History (1.272), explains Pulter’s next zoological exemplar: “it was a commonplace that eagles force their young to gaze on the sun in order to test their worthiness. Those that fail the test turn into kites, birds of prey considered inferior to the eagle.”
eagle
, who her young doth try
Not like
Critical Note
In Pliny’s Natural History, the eagle is described as a violent mother: “she only before her little ones be feathered, will beat and strike them with her wings, and thereby force them to looke full against the sun beames: now if she see any one of them to winke, or their eies to water at the raies of the sun, she turns it with the head forward out of the nest, as a bastard, and not right, nor none of hers; but bringeth up and cherisheth that whose eye will abide the light of the sun, as she looks directly upon him” (The Historie of the World: Commonly Called, the Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. Trans. Philemon Holland. Vol. 1 [1635], 272). In keeping with her emblem’s thematic concern with parenting, Pulter draws on this depiction of the mother eagle to criticize her favoring of the stronger over the weaker, a policy which rejects the equal giving of love that Pulter encourages.
the eagle
, who her young doth
Gloss Note
test, put under trial (OED 2)
try
18
By the Tranſcendent brightnes of her Eye
By the transcendent brightness of
Gloss Note
that is, Sol’s, or the sun’s (in the next line)
her
eye;
By the transcendent brightness of her eye;
19
Thoſe which cant Stare
Physical Note
corrected from “at,” or reverse
on
Sols Refulgent fface
Those which can’t stare on
Gloss Note
the sun’s
Sol’s
Gloss Note
radiant, bright
refulgent
face,
Those which can’t stare at
Gloss Note
the Latin word for sun, and the Roman god of the sun
Sol’s
Gloss Note
shining with, or reflecting, a brilliant light; radiant, resplendent; gleaming, lustrous (OED 1).
refulgent
face,
20
Shee Diſesteems as Baſtard Brats and Baſe
She
disregards, despises
disesteems
as bastard brats and base;
She
Gloss Note
regards lightly, thinks little (or nothing) of; slights, despises (OED 1a)
disesteems
as
Critical Note
Here, base means of lower, inferior quality (OED 7a). For the association of “bastard” and “base”, see Edmund’s soliloquy in Shakespeare’s King Lear, I.II.6, 10: “Why bastard? Wherefore base? ... “Why brand they us with base, base, bastardy”. Eardley punctuates this as “bastard, brats, and base”; however, in this context, both our edition and the elemental edition interpret “bastard” as an adjective for “brat” as opposed to a noun.
bastard brats and base
;
21
Theſe wanting then her Noble Education
These,
Gloss Note
lacking
wanting
then her noble education,
These, wanting then her noble education,
22
Degenerate to kites and keep their ffashion
Degenerate to
Gloss Note
a type of bird of prey; also, in Pulter’s time, a term of reproach
kites
and keep their fashion.
Degenerate to
Gloss Note
a term of reproach or destestation (OED 2). For another use of the term in this sense, see Antony’s address in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, III.VIII. 89: “Ah, you kite!” “Kites” are also birds of prey regarded as inferior to eagles (OED 1).
kites
and keep their fashion.
23
Soe
Physical Note
superscript and subscript in different hand from main scribe
\itt’istis \
when Parents doe a difference make
So ’tis when parents do a difference make:
So ’tis when parents do a difference make;
24
Then O that Councell let mee ever take
Then, O, that counsel let me ever take.
Then O! That counsel let me ever take.
horizontal straight line
X (Close panel)Notes: Amplified Edition

 Editorial note

Our priority in editing these poems has been to modernise, and to achieve interpretative and visual clarity, in order to make the poems as accessible as possible to as wide a modern audience as is possible. Spelling is modernised, as is punctuation. Modernising the latter, in particular, often involves a significant act of editorial interpretation, but in our view this is one of the most productive areas of editorial intervention, particularly for a manuscript text such as Pulter’s where the punctuation is erratic compared to modern usage (and, indeed, compared to early modern printed texts).
1. See Alice Eardley, “‘I haue not time to point yr booke … which I desire you yourselfe to doe’: Editing the Form of Early Modern Manuscript Verse”, in The Work of Form: Poetics and Materiality in Early Modern Culture, ed. Ben Burton and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 162-178.
1
All biblical references are to the King James Version (1612).

 Headnote

Pulter’s focus in this poem is on parental love and the equal “manifest[ation]” of this to one's children (line 16). She draws on William Wood’s depiction of the Indian moose in his New England’s Prospect, commending the animal’s equal division of “comforts” and “care” between her “three young” offspring ([1635], 16-19, esp. 18; lines 1-2). Utilising the moose as her predominant emblem in the poem, Pulter proceeds to compare the moose’s parental strategies with those of other animals, including the ape and the eagle, beasts that she criticises for their unequal division of affection between their young. Engaging in the discourses of Wood, Pliny, and Aesop, this emblem is indicative of the ways in which Pulter's emblems draw on esteemed literary, philosophical, and classical texts for her own didactic purposes.
Pulter’s message of equal love develops and modifies slightly at line seven of the poem, as she emphasises the more strategic aspects of the “policy” by which the moose distributes her children as an act of preservation (line 7). Pulter salutes this unbiased act of separation as she observes the way that parenthood is at the mercy of chance. Several of her occasional lyrics indicate Pulter’s own struggle as mother of children who lived elsewhere, suggesting that Pulter champions the moose as an example of parental sacrifice; see The Invitation into the Country [Poem 2] and To My Dear Jane, Margaret, and Penelope Pulter, They Being at London, I at Broadfield [Poem 38] for examples of Pulter’s occasional lyrics addressing her separation from her children. Her own experience of maternal loss—13 of her 15 children having pre-deceased her—must also have made her particularly sensitive to the devastating role chance could play in parenting.
The poem itself acts as an instructive emblem aimed at parents, a divergence from the audience of children often addressed in her emblem collection; see, for instance, Come, My Dear Children (Emblem 2) [Poem 68] and Doves and Pearls (Emblem 36) [Poem 101]. “The Indian Moose” therefore illustrates the multiple layers of moral address Pulter achieves throughout her emblem collection. Pulter directly acknowledges her intended audience in line 15, stating “Let parents learn by what is writ above”. This imperative appears similarly in The Manucodiats (Emblem 5) [Poem 71], which evokes the emblem of manucodiats—birds-of-paradise—as “transcend[ent]” examples of parental love; here, Pulter employs a similar command, stating “Let parents then learn here indulgency” (lines 10, 16).
Despite her instruction to parents, the final line of Emblem 7 takes a “psalmic” turn inward, as Pulter appeals (indirectly) to God, desiring her own edification as a good protestant mother (Rachel Dunn [Zhang], “Breaking a Tradition: Hester Pulter and the English Emblem Book”, The Seventeenth Century, 30.1 [2015], 55-73, 64). This is a significant feature of Pulter’s emblem collection as she often begins by providing a description of the emblem, followed by an explication of the moral, and then a conclusion of self-reflection, as characterised by an inward turn, to reflect upon her own mortal position as a virtuous protestant mother, wife, and royalist. For more on this aspect of Pulter’s emblem collection and a clear example, see Mighty Nimrod (Emblem 1) [Poem 67], esp. note to line 21 of our Amplified Edition.
Line number 1

 Critical note

Pulter’s source for this emblem is William Wood’s New England’s Prospect, a text aimed at giving a “true, lively, and experimental description” of the New England colony in the north-eastern region of America. Wood writes of moose that “They have generally three at a time, which they hide a mile from another, giving them sucke by turnes; thus they doe, that if the Woolfe should finde one, he might misse of the other” (New England’s Prospect [1635], 16-19, esp. 18). See also The Stately Moose (Emblem 27) [Poem 92] for another description of the moose by Pulter, as she again draws on Wood’s description of the animal to highlight God as the only constant within the “frail” and “casual” aspects of life (line 39).
Line number 2

 Gloss note

triples; increases threefold (OED 1)
Line number 4

 Critical note

in Aesop’s fable “Ape and her two Cubs”, apes are said always to give birth to twins, one of which the mother loves and cares for, while the other she neglects. The consequence of this is that the one attended to is suffocated to death by the loving clasp of its mother’s arms, while the neglected one is “safe as safe could be” (Aesop improved, or, Above Three Hundred and Fifty Fables, mostly Aesop’s [1673], 67). Pliny also gives an account of apes in his Natural History, describing them as being “wondrous[ly] fond of their little ones … that in the end with very little clasping and clipping they kill them many times” (The Historie of the World: Commonly Called, the Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. Trans. Philemon Holland. Vol. 1 [1635], 231).
Line number 4

 Gloss note

use as evidence(OED); demonstrate
Line number 5

 Physical note

MS = “hugling”
Line number 5

 Physical note

MS = a single illegible letter follows this word; “Die[?]” which has been blotted over
Line number 6

 Critical note

inarticulate bawling, squalling (OED 1). MS = “wraleing”. Note that the Elemental Edition of this poem modernises this to “railing”, meaning complaining. Our edition aligns itself with Eardley’s, who proposes “wrawling” as the modernised form of “wraleing” (Poems, Emblems, and The Unfortunate Florinda [Toronto: Iter and Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2014], 195 n. 53.
Line number 7

 Gloss note

a stratagem (OED 3); also meaning principle, or course of action (OED 4). Pulter is referring to the moose’s strategy of separating her children to prevent multiple deaths; see note to line 1.
Line number 8

 Gloss note

each one of the moose’s three calves
Line number 8

 Gloss note

a mile apart (OED 1)
Line number 9

 Gloss note

specifically wolves, as outlined by William Wood (see note to line 1)
Line number 9

 Gloss note

see, notice
Line number 10

 Gloss note

cunning strategy employed to deceive (OED 1)
Line number 11

 Critical note

“The patriarch” is the biblical Jacob, who was regarded as the Patriarch of Israelites after being blessed with the name Israel following his fight with a divine being on his way home to Canaan; see Gen. 32. Jacob famously tricks his older twin Esau out of his father’s blessings, fulfilling God’s prophecy that “the elder shall serve the younger” (KJV Gen.25:23). To escape Esau’s murderous jealousy, Jacob flees to Harran where he creates his own family. On their return to his homeland of Canaan where Esau is leader, and upon hearing his brother is approaching with an army of four hundred, Jacob divides his children between his two wives and handmaids, hoping that if Esau attacks one group, the others will be saved; see Gen. 33. Pulter draws parallels between this biblical narrative and Wood’s account of the Indian moose, demonstrating how both use a similar strategy of dividing their children into groups in the hope that not all will be attacked. Pulter’s approval of the practice of separating children may also have had royalist implications: the plot to remove Charles’s younger brother James to France in April 1648 was crucial to the survival of the royal family (W. A. Speck. “James II and VII.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography [2004]).
Line number 12

 Gloss note

Esau, Jacob’s brother, who desires murderous revenge after Jacob tricks him out of his father’s blessings; see note to previous line.
Line number 13

 Gloss note

an act or occasion of trying one’s chance or fortune (OED 3); gamble; play with chance
Line number 14

 Critical note

Lines 13-14 refer to the wariness merchants feel in placing all their fortune in one ship, given the unpredictable nature of the sea. For a representation of this, see Antonio and Salarino’s opening conversation in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, where Antonio makes it clear that “My ventures are not in one bottom trusted, / Nor to one place” (Edited by John Drakakis [London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011], 1.1.41-2). Pulter compares the strategies of merchants to those of good parents who do not place all their worth in one child.
Line number 17

 Critical note

In Pliny’s Natural History, the eagle is described as a violent mother: “she only before her little ones be feathered, will beat and strike them with her wings, and thereby force them to looke full against the sun beames: now if she see any one of them to winke, or their eies to water at the raies of the sun, she turns it with the head forward out of the nest, as a bastard, and not right, nor none of hers; but bringeth up and cherisheth that whose eye will abide the light of the sun, as she looks directly upon him” (The Historie of the World: Commonly Called, the Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. Trans. Philemon Holland. Vol. 1 [1635], 272). In keeping with her emblem’s thematic concern with parenting, Pulter draws on this depiction of the mother eagle to criticize her favoring of the stronger over the weaker, a policy which rejects the equal giving of love that Pulter encourages.
Line number 17

 Gloss note

test, put under trial (OED 2)
Line number 19

 Gloss note

the Latin word for sun, and the Roman god of the sun
Line number 19

 Gloss note

shining with, or reflecting, a brilliant light; radiant, resplendent; gleaming, lustrous (OED 1).
Line number 20

 Gloss note

regards lightly, thinks little (or nothing) of; slights, despises (OED 1a)
Line number 20

 Critical note

Here, base means of lower, inferior quality (OED 7a). For the association of “bastard” and “base”, see Edmund’s soliloquy in Shakespeare’s King Lear, I.II.6, 10: “Why bastard? Wherefore base? ... “Why brand they us with base, base, bastardy”. Eardley punctuates this as “bastard, brats, and base”; however, in this context, both our edition and the elemental edition interpret “bastard” as an adjective for “brat” as opposed to a noun.
Line number 22

 Gloss note

a term of reproach or destestation (OED 2). For another use of the term in this sense, see Antony’s address in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, III.VIII. 89: “Ah, you kite!” “Kites” are also birds of prey regarded as inferior to eagles (OED 1).
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X (Close panel)Amplified Edition
Amplified Edition

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
[Emblem 7]
The Indian Moose
(Emblem 7)
The Indian Moose
(Emblem 7)
In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.

— Millie Godfery and Sarah C. E. Ross
The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.

— Millie Godfery and Sarah C. E. Ross
Our priority in editing these poems has been to modernise, and to achieve interpretative and visual clarity, in order to make the poems as accessible as possible to as wide a modern audience as is possible. Spelling is modernised, as is punctuation. Modernising the latter, in particular, often involves a significant act of editorial interpretation, but in our view this is one of the most productive areas of editorial intervention, particularly for a manuscript text such as Pulter’s where the punctuation is erratic compared to modern usage (and, indeed, compared to early modern printed texts).
1. See Alice Eardley, “‘I haue not time to point yr booke … which I desire you yourselfe to doe’: Editing the Form of Early Modern Manuscript Verse”, in The Work of Form: Poetics and Materiality in Early Modern Culture, ed. Ben Burton and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 162-178.
1
All biblical references are to the King James Version (1612).

— Millie Godfery and Sarah C. E. Ross
What can we learn from the parenting habits of moose, apes, and eagles? Pulter proffers two lessons from the fauna whose examples she assembles here. The first is that we should show all our children “equal love”: the alternative is to spoil favorites, possibly to death, and neglect others so badly that they degenerate. This is the speaker’s lesson, which she points exclusively toward herself by poem’s end, as if it’s a principle she has trouble practicing. But mid-poem, her attention strays to the salutary way in which the moose (like human exemplars, biblical and mercantile) never puts her eggs in one basket but distributes her offspring widely so they cannot all be attacked at once. This pragmatic lesson has little to do with the high-minded invocation of equitable love: why are they in the same poem? So much is not clear; however, more than one of Pulter’s poems alludes to her far-flung daughters and her desire to bring them home. Perhaps the moose’s example made their distance seem more strategic, and thus more bearable; while the invocation to love all her offspring equally countered an impulse to do otherwise.

— Millie Godfery and Sarah C. E. Ross
Pulter’s focus in this poem is on parental love and the equal “manifest[ation]” of this to one's children (line 16). She draws on William Wood’s depiction of the Indian moose in his New England’s Prospect, commending the animal’s equal division of “comforts” and “care” between her “three young” offspring ([1635], 16-19, esp. 18; lines 1-2). Utilising the moose as her predominant emblem in the poem, Pulter proceeds to compare the moose’s parental strategies with those of other animals, including the ape and the eagle, beasts that she criticises for their unequal division of affection between their young. Engaging in the discourses of Wood, Pliny, and Aesop, this emblem is indicative of the ways in which Pulter's emblems draw on esteemed literary, philosophical, and classical texts for her own didactic purposes.
Pulter’s message of equal love develops and modifies slightly at line seven of the poem, as she emphasises the more strategic aspects of the “policy” by which the moose distributes her children as an act of preservation (line 7). Pulter salutes this unbiased act of separation as she observes the way that parenthood is at the mercy of chance. Several of her occasional lyrics indicate Pulter’s own struggle as mother of children who lived elsewhere, suggesting that Pulter champions the moose as an example of parental sacrifice; see The Invitation into the Country [Poem 2] and To My Dear Jane, Margaret, and Penelope Pulter, They Being at London, I at Broadfield [Poem 38] for examples of Pulter’s occasional lyrics addressing her separation from her children. Her own experience of maternal loss—13 of her 15 children having pre-deceased her—must also have made her particularly sensitive to the devastating role chance could play in parenting.
The poem itself acts as an instructive emblem aimed at parents, a divergence from the audience of children often addressed in her emblem collection; see, for instance, Come, My Dear Children (Emblem 2) [Poem 68] and Doves and Pearls (Emblem 36) [Poem 101]. “The Indian Moose” therefore illustrates the multiple layers of moral address Pulter achieves throughout her emblem collection. Pulter directly acknowledges her intended audience in line 15, stating “Let parents learn by what is writ above”. This imperative appears similarly in The Manucodiats (Emblem 5) [Poem 71], which evokes the emblem of manucodiats—birds-of-paradise—as “transcend[ent]” examples of parental love; here, Pulter employs a similar command, stating “Let parents then learn here indulgency” (lines 10, 16).
Despite her instruction to parents, the final line of Emblem 7 takes a “psalmic” turn inward, as Pulter appeals (indirectly) to God, desiring her own edification as a good protestant mother (Rachel Dunn [Zhang], “Breaking a Tradition: Hester Pulter and the English Emblem Book”, The Seventeenth Century, 30.1 [2015], 55-73, 64). This is a significant feature of Pulter’s emblem collection as she often begins by providing a description of the emblem, followed by an explication of the moral, and then a conclusion of self-reflection, as characterised by an inward turn, to reflect upon her own mortal position as a virtuous protestant mother, wife, and royalist. For more on this aspect of Pulter’s emblem collection and a clear example, see Mighty Nimrod (Emblem 1) [Poem 67], esp. note to line 21 of our Amplified Edition.


— Millie Godfery and Sarah C. E. Ross
1
7The Indian Mooze three Young at once
Physical Note
above cancelled “do,” cancelled “doth,” scribbled out; above that, “doth” in different hand from main scribe
do^dothdoth
bear
The
Critical Note
As Eardley notes, this account appears to be based in William Wood’s description of the moose in New England’s Prospect (London, 1634), p. 21.
Indian moose
three young at once doth bear,
Critical Note
Pulter’s source for this emblem is William Wood’s New England’s Prospect, a text aimed at giving a “true, lively, and experimental description” of the New England colony in the north-eastern region of America. Wood writes of moose that “They have generally three at a time, which they hide a mile from another, giving them sucke by turnes; thus they doe, that if the Woolfe should finde one, he might misse of the other” (New England’s Prospect [1635], 16-19, esp. 18). See also The Stately Moose (Emblem 27) [Poem 92] for another description of the moose by Pulter, as she again draws on Wood’s description of the animal to highlight God as the only constant within the “frail” and “casual” aspects of life (line 39).
The Indian moose three young at once doth bear,
2
Which trebles both her Comforts and her care
Which
Gloss Note
triples
trebles
both her comforts and her
Gloss Note
attention, nurture, or protection, but also trouble, concern
care
.
Which
Gloss Note
triples; increases threefold (OED 1)
trebles
both her comforts and her care;
3
Them equally Shee lovs none worst or best
Them equally she loves, none worst or best:
Them equally she loves, none worst or best
4
Not like the Ape Which doth her love Attest
Not like the ape which doth her love attest
(
Critical Note
in Aesop’s fable “Ape and her two Cubs”, apes are said always to give birth to twins, one of which the mother loves and cares for, while the other she neglects. The consequence of this is that the one attended to is suffocated to death by the loving clasp of its mother’s arms, while the neglected one is “safe as safe could be” (Aesop improved, or, Above Three Hundred and Fifty Fables, mostly Aesop’s [1673], 67). Pliny also gives an account of apes in his Natural History, describing them as being “wondrous[ly] fond of their little ones … that in the end with very little clasping and clipping they kill them many times” (The Historie of the World: Commonly Called, the Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. Trans. Philemon Holland. Vol. 1 [1635], 231).
Not like the ape
which doth her love
Gloss Note
use as evidence(OED); demonstrate
attest
5
By hugling that Shee loves untill it
Physical Note
single illegible blotted letter
Die[?]
By
Gloss Note
an obsolete form of “hugging”
huggling
that she loves until it die;
By
Physical Note
MS = “hugling”
hugging
that she loves until it
Physical Note
MS = a single illegible letter follows this word; “Die[?]” which has been blotted over
die
;
6
The other wraleing at her back hangs by)
The other,
Critical Note
complaining (the manuscript has “wraleing,” which Eardley proposes as “wrawling,” meaning inarticulate crying).
railing
, at her back
Critical Note
The ape’s “other” infant might simply be clinging to its mother’s back, but a “hang-by” was a term of contempt for a hanger-on; given this and some senses of the verb “to hang,” the phrase might suggest the baby ape’s parasitical or burdensome dependence.
hangs by
.
The other,
Critical Note
inarticulate bawling, squalling (OED 1). MS = “wraleing”. Note that the Elemental Edition of this poem modernises this to “railing”, meaning complaining. Our edition aligns itself with Eardley’s, who proposes “wrawling” as the modernised form of “wraleing” (Poems, Emblems, and The Unfortunate Florinda [Toronto: Iter and Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2014], 195 n. 53.
wrawling
, at her back hangs by).
7
To See her Policye would make one wonder
To see
Gloss Note
i.e., the moose’s
her
policy would make one
Gloss Note
marvel
wonder
,
To see her
Gloss Note
a stratagem (OED 3); also meaning principle, or course of action (OED 4). Pulter is referring to the moose’s strategy of separating her children to prevent multiple deaths; see note to line 1.
policy
would make one wonder,
8
In placeing everyone a Mile a Sunder
In placing
Gloss Note
i.e., every one of her young
every one
a mile asunder,
In placing
Gloss Note
each one of the moose’s three calves
every one
a
Gloss Note
a mile apart (OED 1)
mile asunder
,
9
That if her ffoes on one of them Should lite
That if her foes on one of them should light,
That if her
Gloss Note
specifically wolves, as outlined by William Wood (see note to line 1)
foes
on one of them should
Gloss Note
see, notice
light
,
10
The other two are Sav’d by this Sleight
The other two are savéd by this
Gloss Note
stratagem, cunning policy, cleverness
sleight
.
The other two are saved by this
Gloss Note
cunning strategy employed to deceive (OED 1)
sleight
.
11
The Patriark Soe diuided his three bands
The
Critical Note
The manuscript has “patriarch,” altered here to fit the meter. Eardley identifies the patriarch here as the biblical Jacob, who divided his children into three separate groups, so that his estranged brother Esau could not attack all at once (Genesis 33:1).
patr’arch so divided his three bands
,
Critical Note
“The patriarch” is the biblical Jacob, who was regarded as the Patriarch of Israelites after being blessed with the name Israel following his fight with a divine being on his way home to Canaan; see Gen. 32. Jacob famously tricks his older twin Esau out of his father’s blessings, fulfilling God’s prophecy that “the elder shall serve the younger” (KJV Gen.25:23). To escape Esau’s murderous jealousy, Jacob flees to Harran where he creates his own family. On their return to his homeland of Canaan where Esau is leader, and upon hearing his brother is approaching with an army of four hundred, Jacob divides his children between his two wives and handmaids, hoping that if Esau attacks one group, the others will be saved; see Gen. 33. Pulter draws parallels between this biblical narrative and Wood’s account of the Indian moose, demonstrating how both use a similar strategy of dividing their children into groups in the hope that not all will be attacked. Pulter’s approval of the practice of separating children may also have had royalist implications: the plot to remove Charles’s younger brother James to France in April 1648 was crucial to the survival of the royal family (W. A. Speck. “James II and VII.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography [2004]).
The patriarch so divided his three bands
12
To Save them from his Cruell
Physical Note
“ro” and “ers” written over other indecipherable letters
Brothers
hands
To save them from his cruel brothers’ hands.
To save them from his
Gloss Note
Esau, Jacob’s brother, who desires murderous revenge after Jacob tricks him out of his father’s blessings; see note to previous line.
cruel brother’s hands
;
13
Soe Merchants will not venter all they have
So merchants will not venture all they have
So merchants will not
Gloss Note
an act or occasion of trying one’s chance or fortune (OED 3); gamble; play with chance
venture
all they have
14
Within three Inches of the Swelling Wave
Within three inches of the swelling wave.
Within
Critical Note
Lines 13-14 refer to the wariness merchants feel in placing all their fortune in one ship, given the unpredictable nature of the sea. For a representation of this, see Antonio and Salarino’s opening conversation in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, where Antonio makes it clear that “My ventures are not in one bottom trusted, / Nor to one place” (Edited by John Drakakis [London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011], 1.1.41-2). Pulter compares the strategies of merchants to those of good parents who do not place all their worth in one child.
three inches of the swelling wave
.
15
Let Parents Learn by what is writ above
Let parents learn by what is writ above
Let parents learn by what is writ above
16
To manifest to Children equall Love
To manifest to children equal love:
To manifest to children equal love.
17
Not Like the Eagle who her Young doth trie
Not like the
Gloss Note
Eardley, citing Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Natural History (1.272), explains Pulter’s next zoological exemplar: “it was a commonplace that eagles force their young to gaze on the sun in order to test their worthiness. Those that fail the test turn into kites, birds of prey considered inferior to the eagle.”
eagle
, who her young doth try
Not like
Critical Note
In Pliny’s Natural History, the eagle is described as a violent mother: “she only before her little ones be feathered, will beat and strike them with her wings, and thereby force them to looke full against the sun beames: now if she see any one of them to winke, or their eies to water at the raies of the sun, she turns it with the head forward out of the nest, as a bastard, and not right, nor none of hers; but bringeth up and cherisheth that whose eye will abide the light of the sun, as she looks directly upon him” (The Historie of the World: Commonly Called, the Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. Trans. Philemon Holland. Vol. 1 [1635], 272). In keeping with her emblem’s thematic concern with parenting, Pulter draws on this depiction of the mother eagle to criticize her favoring of the stronger over the weaker, a policy which rejects the equal giving of love that Pulter encourages.
the eagle
, who her young doth
Gloss Note
test, put under trial (OED 2)
try
18
By the Tranſcendent brightnes of her Eye
By the transcendent brightness of
Gloss Note
that is, Sol’s, or the sun’s (in the next line)
her
eye;
By the transcendent brightness of her eye;
19
Thoſe which cant Stare
Physical Note
corrected from “at,” or reverse
on
Sols Refulgent fface
Those which can’t stare on
Gloss Note
the sun’s
Sol’s
Gloss Note
radiant, bright
refulgent
face,
Those which can’t stare at
Gloss Note
the Latin word for sun, and the Roman god of the sun
Sol’s
Gloss Note
shining with, or reflecting, a brilliant light; radiant, resplendent; gleaming, lustrous (OED 1).
refulgent
face,
20
Shee Diſesteems as Baſtard Brats and Baſe
She
disregards, despises
disesteems
as bastard brats and base;
She
Gloss Note
regards lightly, thinks little (or nothing) of; slights, despises (OED 1a)
disesteems
as
Critical Note
Here, base means of lower, inferior quality (OED 7a). For the association of “bastard” and “base”, see Edmund’s soliloquy in Shakespeare’s King Lear, I.II.6, 10: “Why bastard? Wherefore base? ... “Why brand they us with base, base, bastardy”. Eardley punctuates this as “bastard, brats, and base”; however, in this context, both our edition and the elemental edition interpret “bastard” as an adjective for “brat” as opposed to a noun.
bastard brats and base
;
21
Theſe wanting then her Noble Education
These,
Gloss Note
lacking
wanting
then her noble education,
These, wanting then her noble education,
22
Degenerate to kites and keep their ffashion
Degenerate to
Gloss Note
a type of bird of prey; also, in Pulter’s time, a term of reproach
kites
and keep their fashion.
Degenerate to
Gloss Note
a term of reproach or destestation (OED 2). For another use of the term in this sense, see Antony’s address in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, III.VIII. 89: “Ah, you kite!” “Kites” are also birds of prey regarded as inferior to eagles (OED 1).
kites
and keep their fashion.
23
Soe
Physical Note
superscript and subscript in different hand from main scribe
\itt’istis \
when Parents doe a difference make
So ’tis when parents do a difference make:
So ’tis when parents do a difference make;
24
Then O that Councell let mee ever take
Then, O, that counsel let me ever take.
Then O! That counsel let me ever take.
horizontal straight line
X (Close panel) All Notes
Transcription

 Editorial note

In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.
Elemental Edition

 Editorial note

The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.
Amplified Edition

 Editorial note

Our priority in editing these poems has been to modernise, and to achieve interpretative and visual clarity, in order to make the poems as accessible as possible to as wide a modern audience as is possible. Spelling is modernised, as is punctuation. Modernising the latter, in particular, often involves a significant act of editorial interpretation, but in our view this is one of the most productive areas of editorial intervention, particularly for a manuscript text such as Pulter’s where the punctuation is erratic compared to modern usage (and, indeed, compared to early modern printed texts).
1. See Alice Eardley, “‘I haue not time to point yr booke … which I desire you yourselfe to doe’: Editing the Form of Early Modern Manuscript Verse”, in The Work of Form: Poetics and Materiality in Early Modern Culture, ed. Ben Burton and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 162-178.
1
All biblical references are to the King James Version (1612).
Elemental Edition

 Headnote

What can we learn from the parenting habits of moose, apes, and eagles? Pulter proffers two lessons from the fauna whose examples she assembles here. The first is that we should show all our children “equal love”: the alternative is to spoil favorites, possibly to death, and neglect others so badly that they degenerate. This is the speaker’s lesson, which she points exclusively toward herself by poem’s end, as if it’s a principle she has trouble practicing. But mid-poem, her attention strays to the salutary way in which the moose (like human exemplars, biblical and mercantile) never puts her eggs in one basket but distributes her offspring widely so they cannot all be attacked at once. This pragmatic lesson has little to do with the high-minded invocation of equitable love: why are they in the same poem? So much is not clear; however, more than one of Pulter’s poems alludes to her far-flung daughters and her desire to bring them home. Perhaps the moose’s example made their distance seem more strategic, and thus more bearable; while the invocation to love all her offspring equally countered an impulse to do otherwise.
Amplified Edition

 Headnote

Pulter’s focus in this poem is on parental love and the equal “manifest[ation]” of this to one's children (line 16). She draws on William Wood’s depiction of the Indian moose in his New England’s Prospect, commending the animal’s equal division of “comforts” and “care” between her “three young” offspring ([1635], 16-19, esp. 18; lines 1-2). Utilising the moose as her predominant emblem in the poem, Pulter proceeds to compare the moose’s parental strategies with those of other animals, including the ape and the eagle, beasts that she criticises for their unequal division of affection between their young. Engaging in the discourses of Wood, Pliny, and Aesop, this emblem is indicative of the ways in which Pulter's emblems draw on esteemed literary, philosophical, and classical texts for her own didactic purposes.
Pulter’s message of equal love develops and modifies slightly at line seven of the poem, as she emphasises the more strategic aspects of the “policy” by which the moose distributes her children as an act of preservation (line 7). Pulter salutes this unbiased act of separation as she observes the way that parenthood is at the mercy of chance. Several of her occasional lyrics indicate Pulter’s own struggle as mother of children who lived elsewhere, suggesting that Pulter champions the moose as an example of parental sacrifice; see The Invitation into the Country [Poem 2] and To My Dear Jane, Margaret, and Penelope Pulter, They Being at London, I at Broadfield [Poem 38] for examples of Pulter’s occasional lyrics addressing her separation from her children. Her own experience of maternal loss—13 of her 15 children having pre-deceased her—must also have made her particularly sensitive to the devastating role chance could play in parenting.
The poem itself acts as an instructive emblem aimed at parents, a divergence from the audience of children often addressed in her emblem collection; see, for instance, Come, My Dear Children (Emblem 2) [Poem 68] and Doves and Pearls (Emblem 36) [Poem 101]. “The Indian Moose” therefore illustrates the multiple layers of moral address Pulter achieves throughout her emblem collection. Pulter directly acknowledges her intended audience in line 15, stating “Let parents learn by what is writ above”. This imperative appears similarly in The Manucodiats (Emblem 5) [Poem 71], which evokes the emblem of manucodiats—birds-of-paradise—as “transcend[ent]” examples of parental love; here, Pulter employs a similar command, stating “Let parents then learn here indulgency” (lines 10, 16).
Despite her instruction to parents, the final line of Emblem 7 takes a “psalmic” turn inward, as Pulter appeals (indirectly) to God, desiring her own edification as a good protestant mother (Rachel Dunn [Zhang], “Breaking a Tradition: Hester Pulter and the English Emblem Book”, The Seventeenth Century, 30.1 [2015], 55-73, 64). This is a significant feature of Pulter’s emblem collection as she often begins by providing a description of the emblem, followed by an explication of the moral, and then a conclusion of self-reflection, as characterised by an inward turn, to reflect upon her own mortal position as a virtuous protestant mother, wife, and royalist. For more on this aspect of Pulter’s emblem collection and a clear example, see Mighty Nimrod (Emblem 1) [Poem 67], esp. note to line 21 of our Amplified Edition.
Transcription
Line number 1

 Physical note

above cancelled “do,” cancelled “doth,” scribbled out; above that, “doth” in different hand from main scribe
Elemental Edition
Line number 1

 Critical note

As Eardley notes, this account appears to be based in William Wood’s description of the moose in New England’s Prospect (London, 1634), p. 21.
Amplified Edition
Line number 1

 Critical note

Pulter’s source for this emblem is William Wood’s New England’s Prospect, a text aimed at giving a “true, lively, and experimental description” of the New England colony in the north-eastern region of America. Wood writes of moose that “They have generally three at a time, which they hide a mile from another, giving them sucke by turnes; thus they doe, that if the Woolfe should finde one, he might misse of the other” (New England’s Prospect [1635], 16-19, esp. 18). See also The Stately Moose (Emblem 27) [Poem 92] for another description of the moose by Pulter, as she again draws on Wood’s description of the animal to highlight God as the only constant within the “frail” and “casual” aspects of life (line 39).
Elemental Edition
Line number 2

 Gloss note

triples
Elemental Edition
Line number 2

 Gloss note

attention, nurture, or protection, but also trouble, concern
Amplified Edition
Line number 2

 Gloss note

triples; increases threefold (OED 1)
Amplified Edition
Line number 4

 Critical note

in Aesop’s fable “Ape and her two Cubs”, apes are said always to give birth to twins, one of which the mother loves and cares for, while the other she neglects. The consequence of this is that the one attended to is suffocated to death by the loving clasp of its mother’s arms, while the neglected one is “safe as safe could be” (Aesop improved, or, Above Three Hundred and Fifty Fables, mostly Aesop’s [1673], 67). Pliny also gives an account of apes in his Natural History, describing them as being “wondrous[ly] fond of their little ones … that in the end with very little clasping and clipping they kill them many times” (The Historie of the World: Commonly Called, the Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. Trans. Philemon Holland. Vol. 1 [1635], 231).
Amplified Edition
Line number 4

 Gloss note

use as evidence(OED); demonstrate
Transcription
Line number 5

 Physical note

single illegible blotted letter
Elemental Edition
Line number 5

 Gloss note

an obsolete form of “hugging”
Amplified Edition
Line number 5

 Physical note

MS = “hugling”
Amplified Edition
Line number 5

 Physical note

MS = a single illegible letter follows this word; “Die[?]” which has been blotted over
Elemental Edition
Line number 6

 Critical note

complaining (the manuscript has “wraleing,” which Eardley proposes as “wrawling,” meaning inarticulate crying).
Elemental Edition
Line number 6

 Critical note

The ape’s “other” infant might simply be clinging to its mother’s back, but a “hang-by” was a term of contempt for a hanger-on; given this and some senses of the verb “to hang,” the phrase might suggest the baby ape’s parasitical or burdensome dependence.
Amplified Edition
Line number 6

 Critical note

inarticulate bawling, squalling (OED 1). MS = “wraleing”. Note that the Elemental Edition of this poem modernises this to “railing”, meaning complaining. Our edition aligns itself with Eardley’s, who proposes “wrawling” as the modernised form of “wraleing” (Poems, Emblems, and The Unfortunate Florinda [Toronto: Iter and Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2014], 195 n. 53.
Elemental Edition
Line number 7

 Gloss note

i.e., the moose’s
Elemental Edition
Line number 7

 Gloss note

marvel
Amplified Edition
Line number 7

 Gloss note

a stratagem (OED 3); also meaning principle, or course of action (OED 4). Pulter is referring to the moose’s strategy of separating her children to prevent multiple deaths; see note to line 1.
Elemental Edition
Line number 8

 Gloss note

i.e., every one of her young
Amplified Edition
Line number 8

 Gloss note

each one of the moose’s three calves
Amplified Edition
Line number 8

 Gloss note

a mile apart (OED 1)
Amplified Edition
Line number 9

 Gloss note

specifically wolves, as outlined by William Wood (see note to line 1)
Amplified Edition
Line number 9

 Gloss note

see, notice
Elemental Edition
Line number 10

 Gloss note

stratagem, cunning policy, cleverness
Amplified Edition
Line number 10

 Gloss note

cunning strategy employed to deceive (OED 1)
Elemental Edition
Line number 11

 Critical note

The manuscript has “patriarch,” altered here to fit the meter. Eardley identifies the patriarch here as the biblical Jacob, who divided his children into three separate groups, so that his estranged brother Esau could not attack all at once (Genesis 33:1).
Amplified Edition
Line number 11

 Critical note

“The patriarch” is the biblical Jacob, who was regarded as the Patriarch of Israelites after being blessed with the name Israel following his fight with a divine being on his way home to Canaan; see Gen. 32. Jacob famously tricks his older twin Esau out of his father’s blessings, fulfilling God’s prophecy that “the elder shall serve the younger” (KJV Gen.25:23). To escape Esau’s murderous jealousy, Jacob flees to Harran where he creates his own family. On their return to his homeland of Canaan where Esau is leader, and upon hearing his brother is approaching with an army of four hundred, Jacob divides his children between his two wives and handmaids, hoping that if Esau attacks one group, the others will be saved; see Gen. 33. Pulter draws parallels between this biblical narrative and Wood’s account of the Indian moose, demonstrating how both use a similar strategy of dividing their children into groups in the hope that not all will be attacked. Pulter’s approval of the practice of separating children may also have had royalist implications: the plot to remove Charles’s younger brother James to France in April 1648 was crucial to the survival of the royal family (W. A. Speck. “James II and VII.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography [2004]).
Transcription
Line number 12

 Physical note

“ro” and “ers” written over other indecipherable letters
Amplified Edition
Line number 12

 Gloss note

Esau, Jacob’s brother, who desires murderous revenge after Jacob tricks him out of his father’s blessings; see note to previous line.
Amplified Edition
Line number 13

 Gloss note

an act or occasion of trying one’s chance or fortune (OED 3); gamble; play with chance
Amplified Edition
Line number 14

 Critical note

Lines 13-14 refer to the wariness merchants feel in placing all their fortune in one ship, given the unpredictable nature of the sea. For a representation of this, see Antonio and Salarino’s opening conversation in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, where Antonio makes it clear that “My ventures are not in one bottom trusted, / Nor to one place” (Edited by John Drakakis [London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011], 1.1.41-2). Pulter compares the strategies of merchants to those of good parents who do not place all their worth in one child.
Elemental Edition
Line number 17

 Gloss note

Eardley, citing Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Natural History (1.272), explains Pulter’s next zoological exemplar: “it was a commonplace that eagles force their young to gaze on the sun in order to test their worthiness. Those that fail the test turn into kites, birds of prey considered inferior to the eagle.”
Amplified Edition
Line number 17

 Critical note

In Pliny’s Natural History, the eagle is described as a violent mother: “she only before her little ones be feathered, will beat and strike them with her wings, and thereby force them to looke full against the sun beames: now if she see any one of them to winke, or their eies to water at the raies of the sun, she turns it with the head forward out of the nest, as a bastard, and not right, nor none of hers; but bringeth up and cherisheth that whose eye will abide the light of the sun, as she looks directly upon him” (The Historie of the World: Commonly Called, the Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. Trans. Philemon Holland. Vol. 1 [1635], 272). In keeping with her emblem’s thematic concern with parenting, Pulter draws on this depiction of the mother eagle to criticize her favoring of the stronger over the weaker, a policy which rejects the equal giving of love that Pulter encourages.
Amplified Edition
Line number 17

 Gloss note

test, put under trial (OED 2)
Elemental Edition
Line number 18

 Gloss note

that is, Sol’s, or the sun’s (in the next line)
Transcription
Line number 19

 Physical note

corrected from “at,” or reverse
Elemental Edition
Line number 19

 Gloss note

the sun’s
Elemental Edition
Line number 19

 Gloss note

radiant, bright
Amplified Edition
Line number 19

 Gloss note

the Latin word for sun, and the Roman god of the sun
Amplified Edition
Line number 19

 Gloss note

shining with, or reflecting, a brilliant light; radiant, resplendent; gleaming, lustrous (OED 1).
Elemental Edition
Line number 20
disregards, despises
Amplified Edition
Line number 20

 Gloss note

regards lightly, thinks little (or nothing) of; slights, despises (OED 1a)
Amplified Edition
Line number 20

 Critical note

Here, base means of lower, inferior quality (OED 7a). For the association of “bastard” and “base”, see Edmund’s soliloquy in Shakespeare’s King Lear, I.II.6, 10: “Why bastard? Wherefore base? ... “Why brand they us with base, base, bastardy”. Eardley punctuates this as “bastard, brats, and base”; however, in this context, both our edition and the elemental edition interpret “bastard” as an adjective for “brat” as opposed to a noun.
Elemental Edition
Line number 21

 Gloss note

lacking
Elemental Edition
Line number 22

 Gloss note

a type of bird of prey; also, in Pulter’s time, a term of reproach
Amplified Edition
Line number 22

 Gloss note

a term of reproach or destestation (OED 2). For another use of the term in this sense, see Antony’s address in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, III.VIII. 89: “Ah, you kite!” “Kites” are also birds of prey regarded as inferior to eagles (OED 1).
Transcription
Line number 23

 Physical note

superscript and subscript in different hand from main scribe
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