The Lion and the Ass (Emblem 32)

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The Lion and the Ass (Emblem 32)

Poem 97

Original Source

Hester Pulter, Poems breathed forth by the nobel Hadassas, University of Leeds Library, Brotherton Collection, MS Lt q 32

Versions

  • Facsimile of manuscript: Photographs provided by University of Leeds, Brotherton Collection

  • Transcription of manuscript: By Leah Knight and Wendy Wall.
  • Elemental edition: By Leah Knight and Wendy Wall.

How to cite these versions

Conventions for these editions

The Pulter Project: Poet in the Making

  • Created by Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
  • Encoded by Katherine Poland, Matthew Taylor, Elizabeth Chou, and Emily Andrey, Northwestern University
  • Website designed by Sergei Kalugin, Northwestern University
  • IT project consultation by Josh Honn, Northwestern University
  • Project sponsored by Northwestern University, Brock University, and University of Leeds
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X (Close panel)Notes: Transcription

 Editorial note

In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.
Line number 1

 Physical note

poem begins near bottom of page on which previous poem ends
Line number 8

 Physical note

written in H2
Line number 15

 Physical note

in left margin: “x Plinie ye 11 Boo / Chapter 30.”
Line number 15

 Physical note

“n” appears to correct partly and imperfectly erased letter, possibly “ſ”
Line number 17

 Physical note

“is” written over earlier “er”
Sorry, but there are no notes associated with any currently displayed witness.
X (Close panel)Transcription
Transcription

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
[Emblem 32]
The Lion and the Ass
(Emblem 32)
AE TITLE
In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall


— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
Jealousy: good or bad? It can be “noble” or not, in Pulter’s terms. The noble kind avoids pre-emptive strikes, such as the dramatic approach of the male wild ass, who bites off the testicles of its male newborns to prevent them mating with their mother (so Pulter’s sources claimed). It is not hard to understand her castigation of this approach to preventing infidelity; more surprising is her apparent endorsement, by contrast, of the lion’s and the elephant’s policy of uxoricide: the killing of their unfaithful mates. What makes the difference? The ass, cynically, predicts the worst--the infidelity and incest of both spouse and offspring--while the lion (like the elephant) waits until he “knows she doth amiss” (emphasis added). The vice emblematized, therefore, is not jealousy, but “suspicion.” This poem joins Emblems 19 and 20 in their concern with marital fidelity, while sharpening the focus of the preceding emblem in the manuscript (“Old Aeschylus” [Emblem 31] [Poem 96]) in a preoccupation with avoiding undue apprehension and preconception. “Let me not here anticipate the grave,” the speaker pleads, there, with herself; here, more indirectly, a similar message is proffered to an unspecified “you.”

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall


— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
1
32
Physical Note
poem begins near bottom of page on which previous poem ends
The
Lion Roars his vaſſals fear and tremble
The lion roars; his
Gloss Note
subordinates, servants
vassals
fear and tremble.
2
But if hee comes where they doe all aſſemble
But if he comes where they do all assemble,
3
They Stand examinated as they Say
They stand
Gloss Note
examined, as a witness at a trial, or a student tested for competence. Pulter uses this word to suggest the lion’s “institutional” power over the subjects who are at his mercy.
examinated
, as they say.
4
Thus Tirant like hee chooſeth out his prey
Thus, tyrant-like, he chooseth out his prey;
5
Yet though his Subjects at his Mercie Lies
Yet though his subjects at his mercy lies,
6
Yet hee’s a Slave unto his Love’s bright eyes
Yet he’s a slave unto his love’s bright eyes,
being

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
7
Beeing most indulgent to his Lyones
Being most indulgent to his
Gloss Note
See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny for a parallel to the next few lines: “Lionesses are very lecherous, and this is the very cause that the lions are so fell and cruel. ... The lion knoweth by sent and smell of the pard [panther, leopard] when the lioness his mare hath played false, … and presently with all his might and maine runneth upon her for to chastise and punish her. And therefore when the lioness hath done a fault that way, she either goeth to a river, and washeth away the strong and rank savor of the pard, or els keepeth aloof, and followeth the lion far off, that he may not catch the said smell.” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 200.
lioness
;
8
Yet Kils her if hee Knows Shee
Physical Note
written in H2
\do’th\
a miſs
Yet kills her if he knows she doth amiss.
9
ffor when hee Smels the Panthers Strong perfumes
For when he smells
Gloss Note
“Perfumes” may refer to to any odors. See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny: “It is said, that all four-footed beasts are wonderfully delighted and enticed by the smell of panthers” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 204.
the panther’s strong perfumes
,
10
That Shee hath Broke her ffaith he then peſumes
That she hath broke her faith he then presumes.
11
But if Shee waſh her in Some Criſtall Streams
But if she wash her in some crystal streams,
12
That Shee is falce to him hee never dreams
That she is false to him he never dreams.
13
Such Noble Jealouſie all must comend
Such noble jealousy all must commend.
14
In this the Elaphant doth Soe Tranſcend
In this, the elephant doth
Gloss Note
equally, to the same extent; or, possibly, short for “also.” The sense is that the lion and elephant equally transcend other creatures in the nobility of their jealousy. See “The Elephant” (Emblem 19) [Poem 84]: “For chastity this gallant creature’s crowned; / … / Yet, he’s so tender of his reputation / He kills his female if he doubts [fears] scortation [adultery].”
so
transcend.
15
Physical Note
in left margin: “x Plinie ye 11 Boo / Chapter 30.”
But
the wild hairbraind
Physical Note
“n” appears to correct partly and imperfectly erased letter, possibly “ſ”
And
Laſcivious xAſs
But the wild, hare-brained, and
Gloss Note
lustful or lewd donkey. A note in the margin refers readers to Chapter 30 of Pliny’s 11th book: a reference to an ancient compendium of natural history. For the meter, “lascivious” should take three syllables.
lascivious ass
16
All Creatures els in Jealouſie doth paſs
All creatures else in jealousy doth pass;
17
ffor hee doth Watch
Physical Note
“is” written over earlier “er”
his
Young ones when they fall
For he doth watch his young ones
Gloss Note
when they are born
when they fall
;
18
Then to prevent all fear hee bites of all
Then,
Gloss Note
The father ass aims to avoid having his sons mate with their mother by castrating them at birth, with “all” referring here to testicles. See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny on wild asses (cited in the margin of this line to Chapter 30 of his eleventh book, in error for the eighth): “This beast is so jealous, that they look narrowly to the females great with young: for so soon as they have foaled, they bite off the cods [testicles] of the little ones that be males, and so geld [castrate] them.” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 212.
to prevent all fear, he bites off all
.
19
Hee’s Surely proud of’s Ears and fears the Horn
He’s surely proud
Gloss Note
of his
of’s
ears, and fears
Gloss Note
a cuckold, an insulting term for the husband of an unfaithful wife was imagined to grow a horn or horns
the horn
,
20
When ’tis the Wittal is the peoples Scorn
When ’tis the
Gloss Note
a husband who is aware of his wife’s infidelity and puts up with it
wittol
is the people’s scorn.
21
Then by theſe Storyes you may plainly See
Then by these stories you may plainly see
22
The Noblest Mind is from Suſpition ffree
The noblest mind is from suspicion free;
23
And by like Conſequence it comes to paſs
And by like consequence it comes to pass
24
None is Soe Jealous as the mad braind Aſs
None is so jealous as the mad-brained ass.
X (Close panel)Notes: Elemental Edition

 Editorial note

The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.

 Headnote

Jealousy: good or bad? It can be “noble” or not, in Pulter’s terms. The noble kind avoids pre-emptive strikes, such as the dramatic approach of the male wild ass, who bites off the testicles of its male newborns to prevent them mating with their mother (so Pulter’s sources claimed). It is not hard to understand her castigation of this approach to preventing infidelity; more surprising is her apparent endorsement, by contrast, of the lion’s and the elephant’s policy of uxoricide: the killing of their unfaithful mates. What makes the difference? The ass, cynically, predicts the worst--the infidelity and incest of both spouse and offspring--while the lion (like the elephant) waits until he “knows she doth amiss” (emphasis added). The vice emblematized, therefore, is not jealousy, but “suspicion.” This poem joins Emblems 19 and 20 in their concern with marital fidelity, while sharpening the focus of the preceding emblem in the manuscript (“Old Aeschylus” [Emblem 31] [Poem 96]) in a preoccupation with avoiding undue apprehension and preconception. “Let me not here anticipate the grave,” the speaker pleads, there, with herself; here, more indirectly, a similar message is proffered to an unspecified “you.”
Line number 1

 Gloss note

subordinates, servants
Line number 3

 Gloss note

examined, as a witness at a trial, or a student tested for competence. Pulter uses this word to suggest the lion’s “institutional” power over the subjects who are at his mercy.
Line number 7

 Gloss note

See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny for a parallel to the next few lines: “Lionesses are very lecherous, and this is the very cause that the lions are so fell and cruel. ... The lion knoweth by sent and smell of the pard [panther, leopard] when the lioness his mare hath played false, … and presently with all his might and maine runneth upon her for to chastise and punish her. And therefore when the lioness hath done a fault that way, she either goeth to a river, and washeth away the strong and rank savor of the pard, or els keepeth aloof, and followeth the lion far off, that he may not catch the said smell.” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 200.
Line number 9

 Gloss note

“Perfumes” may refer to to any odors. See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny: “It is said, that all four-footed beasts are wonderfully delighted and enticed by the smell of panthers” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 204.
Line number 14

 Gloss note

equally, to the same extent; or, possibly, short for “also.” The sense is that the lion and elephant equally transcend other creatures in the nobility of their jealousy. See “The Elephant” (Emblem 19) [Poem 84]: “For chastity this gallant creature’s crowned; / … / Yet, he’s so tender of his reputation / He kills his female if he doubts [fears] scortation [adultery].”
Line number 15

 Gloss note

lustful or lewd donkey. A note in the margin refers readers to Chapter 30 of Pliny’s 11th book: a reference to an ancient compendium of natural history. For the meter, “lascivious” should take three syllables.
Line number 17

 Gloss note

when they are born
Line number 18

 Gloss note

The father ass aims to avoid having his sons mate with their mother by castrating them at birth, with “all” referring here to testicles. See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny on wild asses (cited in the margin of this line to Chapter 30 of his eleventh book, in error for the eighth): “This beast is so jealous, that they look narrowly to the females great with young: for so soon as they have foaled, they bite off the cods [testicles] of the little ones that be males, and so geld [castrate] them.” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 212.
Line number 19

 Gloss note

of his
Line number 19

 Gloss note

a cuckold, an insulting term for the husband of an unfaithful wife was imagined to grow a horn or horns
Line number 20

 Gloss note

a husband who is aware of his wife’s infidelity and puts up with it
Sorry, but there are no notes associated with any currently displayed witness.
X (Close panel)Elemental Edition
Elemental Edition

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
[Emblem 32]
The Lion and the Ass
(Emblem 32)
AE TITLE
In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall


— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
Jealousy: good or bad? It can be “noble” or not, in Pulter’s terms. The noble kind avoids pre-emptive strikes, such as the dramatic approach of the male wild ass, who bites off the testicles of its male newborns to prevent them mating with their mother (so Pulter’s sources claimed). It is not hard to understand her castigation of this approach to preventing infidelity; more surprising is her apparent endorsement, by contrast, of the lion’s and the elephant’s policy of uxoricide: the killing of their unfaithful mates. What makes the difference? The ass, cynically, predicts the worst--the infidelity and incest of both spouse and offspring--while the lion (like the elephant) waits until he “knows she doth amiss” (emphasis added). The vice emblematized, therefore, is not jealousy, but “suspicion.” This poem joins Emblems 19 and 20 in their concern with marital fidelity, while sharpening the focus of the preceding emblem in the manuscript (“Old Aeschylus” [Emblem 31] [Poem 96]) in a preoccupation with avoiding undue apprehension and preconception. “Let me not here anticipate the grave,” the speaker pleads, there, with herself; here, more indirectly, a similar message is proffered to an unspecified “you.”

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall


— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
1
32
Physical Note
poem begins near bottom of page on which previous poem ends
The
Lion Roars his vaſſals fear and tremble
The lion roars; his
Gloss Note
subordinates, servants
vassals
fear and tremble.
2
But if hee comes where they doe all aſſemble
But if he comes where they do all assemble,
3
They Stand examinated as they Say
They stand
Gloss Note
examined, as a witness at a trial, or a student tested for competence. Pulter uses this word to suggest the lion’s “institutional” power over the subjects who are at his mercy.
examinated
, as they say.
4
Thus Tirant like hee chooſeth out his prey
Thus, tyrant-like, he chooseth out his prey;
5
Yet though his Subjects at his Mercie Lies
Yet though his subjects at his mercy lies,
6
Yet hee’s a Slave unto his Love’s bright eyes
Yet he’s a slave unto his love’s bright eyes,
being

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
7
Beeing most indulgent to his Lyones
Being most indulgent to his
Gloss Note
See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny for a parallel to the next few lines: “Lionesses are very lecherous, and this is the very cause that the lions are so fell and cruel. ... The lion knoweth by sent and smell of the pard [panther, leopard] when the lioness his mare hath played false, … and presently with all his might and maine runneth upon her for to chastise and punish her. And therefore when the lioness hath done a fault that way, she either goeth to a river, and washeth away the strong and rank savor of the pard, or els keepeth aloof, and followeth the lion far off, that he may not catch the said smell.” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 200.
lioness
;
8
Yet Kils her if hee Knows Shee
Physical Note
written in H2
\do’th\
a miſs
Yet kills her if he knows she doth amiss.
9
ffor when hee Smels the Panthers Strong perfumes
For when he smells
Gloss Note
“Perfumes” may refer to to any odors. See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny: “It is said, that all four-footed beasts are wonderfully delighted and enticed by the smell of panthers” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 204.
the panther’s strong perfumes
,
10
That Shee hath Broke her ffaith he then peſumes
That she hath broke her faith he then presumes.
11
But if Shee waſh her in Some Criſtall Streams
But if she wash her in some crystal streams,
12
That Shee is falce to him hee never dreams
That she is false to him he never dreams.
13
Such Noble Jealouſie all must comend
Such noble jealousy all must commend.
14
In this the Elaphant doth Soe Tranſcend
In this, the elephant doth
Gloss Note
equally, to the same extent; or, possibly, short for “also.” The sense is that the lion and elephant equally transcend other creatures in the nobility of their jealousy. See “The Elephant” (Emblem 19) [Poem 84]: “For chastity this gallant creature’s crowned; / … / Yet, he’s so tender of his reputation / He kills his female if he doubts [fears] scortation [adultery].”
so
transcend.
15
Physical Note
in left margin: “x Plinie ye 11 Boo / Chapter 30.”
But
the wild hairbraind
Physical Note
“n” appears to correct partly and imperfectly erased letter, possibly “ſ”
And
Laſcivious xAſs
But the wild, hare-brained, and
Gloss Note
lustful or lewd donkey. A note in the margin refers readers to Chapter 30 of Pliny’s 11th book: a reference to an ancient compendium of natural history. For the meter, “lascivious” should take three syllables.
lascivious ass
16
All Creatures els in Jealouſie doth paſs
All creatures else in jealousy doth pass;
17
ffor hee doth Watch
Physical Note
“is” written over earlier “er”
his
Young ones when they fall
For he doth watch his young ones
Gloss Note
when they are born
when they fall
;
18
Then to prevent all fear hee bites of all
Then,
Gloss Note
The father ass aims to avoid having his sons mate with their mother by castrating them at birth, with “all” referring here to testicles. See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny on wild asses (cited in the margin of this line to Chapter 30 of his eleventh book, in error for the eighth): “This beast is so jealous, that they look narrowly to the females great with young: for so soon as they have foaled, they bite off the cods [testicles] of the little ones that be males, and so geld [castrate] them.” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 212.
to prevent all fear, he bites off all
.
19
Hee’s Surely proud of’s Ears and fears the Horn
He’s surely proud
Gloss Note
of his
of’s
ears, and fears
Gloss Note
a cuckold, an insulting term for the husband of an unfaithful wife was imagined to grow a horn or horns
the horn
,
20
When ’tis the Wittal is the peoples Scorn
When ’tis the
Gloss Note
a husband who is aware of his wife’s infidelity and puts up with it
wittol
is the people’s scorn.
21
Then by theſe Storyes you may plainly See
Then by these stories you may plainly see
22
The Noblest Mind is from Suſpition ffree
The noblest mind is from suspicion free;
23
And by like Conſequence it comes to paſs
And by like consequence it comes to pass
24
None is Soe Jealous as the mad braind Aſs
None is so jealous as the mad-brained ass.
X (Close panel) All Notes
Transcription

 Editorial note

In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.
Elemental Edition

 Editorial note

The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.
Amplified Edition

 Editorial note

Elemental Edition

 Headnote

Jealousy: good or bad? It can be “noble” or not, in Pulter’s terms. The noble kind avoids pre-emptive strikes, such as the dramatic approach of the male wild ass, who bites off the testicles of its male newborns to prevent them mating with their mother (so Pulter’s sources claimed). It is not hard to understand her castigation of this approach to preventing infidelity; more surprising is her apparent endorsement, by contrast, of the lion’s and the elephant’s policy of uxoricide: the killing of their unfaithful mates. What makes the difference? The ass, cynically, predicts the worst--the infidelity and incest of both spouse and offspring--while the lion (like the elephant) waits until he “knows she doth amiss” (emphasis added). The vice emblematized, therefore, is not jealousy, but “suspicion.” This poem joins Emblems 19 and 20 in their concern with marital fidelity, while sharpening the focus of the preceding emblem in the manuscript (“Old Aeschylus” [Emblem 31] [Poem 96]) in a preoccupation with avoiding undue apprehension and preconception. “Let me not here anticipate the grave,” the speaker pleads, there, with herself; here, more indirectly, a similar message is proffered to an unspecified “you.”
Amplified Edition

 Headnote

Transcription
Line number 1

 Physical note

poem begins near bottom of page on which previous poem ends
Elemental Edition
Line number 1

 Gloss note

subordinates, servants
Elemental Edition
Line number 3

 Gloss note

examined, as a witness at a trial, or a student tested for competence. Pulter uses this word to suggest the lion’s “institutional” power over the subjects who are at his mercy.
Elemental Edition
Line number 7

 Gloss note

See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny for a parallel to the next few lines: “Lionesses are very lecherous, and this is the very cause that the lions are so fell and cruel. ... The lion knoweth by sent and smell of the pard [panther, leopard] when the lioness his mare hath played false, … and presently with all his might and maine runneth upon her for to chastise and punish her. And therefore when the lioness hath done a fault that way, she either goeth to a river, and washeth away the strong and rank savor of the pard, or els keepeth aloof, and followeth the lion far off, that he may not catch the said smell.” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 200.
Transcription
Line number 8

 Physical note

written in H2
Elemental Edition
Line number 9

 Gloss note

“Perfumes” may refer to to any odors. See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny: “It is said, that all four-footed beasts are wonderfully delighted and enticed by the smell of panthers” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 204.
Elemental Edition
Line number 14

 Gloss note

equally, to the same extent; or, possibly, short for “also.” The sense is that the lion and elephant equally transcend other creatures in the nobility of their jealousy. See “The Elephant” (Emblem 19) [Poem 84]: “For chastity this gallant creature’s crowned; / … / Yet, he’s so tender of his reputation / He kills his female if he doubts [fears] scortation [adultery].”
Transcription
Line number 15

 Physical note

in left margin: “x Plinie ye 11 Boo / Chapter 30.”
Transcription
Line number 15

 Physical note

“n” appears to correct partly and imperfectly erased letter, possibly “ſ”
Elemental Edition
Line number 15

 Gloss note

lustful or lewd donkey. A note in the margin refers readers to Chapter 30 of Pliny’s 11th book: a reference to an ancient compendium of natural history. For the meter, “lascivious” should take three syllables.
Transcription
Line number 17

 Physical note

“is” written over earlier “er”
Elemental Edition
Line number 17

 Gloss note

when they are born
Elemental Edition
Line number 18

 Gloss note

The father ass aims to avoid having his sons mate with their mother by castrating them at birth, with “all” referring here to testicles. See Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny on wild asses (cited in the margin of this line to Chapter 30 of his eleventh book, in error for the eighth): “This beast is so jealous, that they look narrowly to the females great with young: for so soon as they have foaled, they bite off the cods [testicles] of the little ones that be males, and so geld [castrate] them.” The History of the World (London, 1634), p. 212.
Elemental Edition
Line number 19

 Gloss note

of his
Elemental Edition
Line number 19

 Gloss note

a cuckold, an insulting term for the husband of an unfaithful wife was imagined to grow a horn or horns
Elemental Edition
Line number 20

 Gloss note

a husband who is aware of his wife’s infidelity and puts up with it
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