The Caucasines (Emblem 52)

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The Caucasines (Emblem 52)

Poem #117

Original Source

Hester Pulter, Poems breathed forth by the nobel Hadassas, University of Leeds Library, Brotherton Collection, MS Lt q 32

Versions

  • Facsimile of manuscript: Photographs provided by University of Leeds, Brotherton Collection

  • Transcription of manuscript: By Leah Knight and Wendy Wall.
  • Elemental edition: By Leah Knight and Wendy Wall.

How to cite these versions

Conventions for these editions

The Pulter Project: Poet in the Making

  • Created by Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
  • Encoded by Katherine Poland, Matthew Taylor, Elizabeth Chou, and Emily Andrey, Northwestern University
  • Website designed by Sergei Kalugin, Northwestern University
  • IT project consultation by Josh Honn, Northwestern University
  • Project sponsored by Northwestern University, Brock University, and University of Leeds
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X (Close panel)Notes: Transcription

 Editorial note

In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.
Line number 1

 Physical note

“u.” directly above erased letter(s), perhaps “m” or “ni”; insertion in different hand from main scribe
Line number 2

 Physical note

“s” added later in different hand from main scribe
Line number 14

 Physical note

in left margin: “x Presbitery”, with “bitery” in different hand from main scribe
Line number 15

 Physical note

“r” in double superscript
Line number 17

 Physical note

in left margin: “* Independ”, with “epend” in different hand from main scribe
Line number 22

 Physical note

in left margin: “*Protector”, with “tector” in different hand from main scribe
Sorry, but there are no notes associated with any currently displayed witness.
X (Close panel)Transcription
Transcription

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
[Emblem 52]
The Caucasines
(Emblem 52)
AE TITLE
In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall


— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
Be careful what you wish for, since you just might get it; but don’t stop hoping, wishing, and praying, because who knows what might happen? So goes the (understandably) tangled moral in this response to the chaos of Britain’s civil wars and the ensuing interregnum. Creaturely images of parasites and predators form a concatenation of opaque references to infestations of animals (locusts, ibis, serpents), identified in the manuscript’s margin with specific factions and figures (Presbyterians, Cromwell, Independents). For Pulter, this poem is unusually explicit in identifying the political players involved. Despite the clarity suggested by such one-to-one allegories, the speaker’s zoological emblems primarily serve to show the challenge of choosing who to trust in times of civil upheaval, when seeming saviors can disappear, or even prove enemies in the end.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall


— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
1
52The
Physical Note
“u.” directly above erased letter(s), perhaps “m” or “ni”; insertion in different hand from main scribe
Cau.caſines
with Locusts were anoy’d
Gloss Note
In a discussion of locusts and “how they may be killed and driven away,” Edward Topsell includes this account of the Seleucides of Mount Cassian: “the inhabitants of the Mount Cassian [Caucasines] formerly obtained [the Seleucides] to be sent by Jupiter against the locusts that destroyed their corn. These birds come yearly to help them, but whither they fly back, or whence they come, no man can tell. So soon as the locusts are destroyed they forsake the mountain, and go home again.” History of Four-Footed Beasts, (London, 1658), p. 988.
The Caucasines with locusts were annoyed
2
That all their
Physical Note
“s” added later in different hand from main scribe
Herbs
and ffruits were quite deſtroyd
That all their
Gloss Note
plants
herbs
and fruits were quite destroyed;
3
Whilst with Sad Hearts their Suffrings they deplore
Whilst with sad hearts their suff’rings they
Gloss Note
lament
deplore
,
4
And the aſſistance of the Gods implore
And the assistance of the gods implore,
5
The Selucides Birds never Seen before
The Seleucides birds, ne’er seen before,
6
With their united Strength and numerous power
With their united strength and num’rous power
7
Did inſtantly theſe Locusts all devour
Did instantly these locusts all devour.
8
Their Work being don they Straight fflew all away
Their work being done, they straight flew all away,
9
And ne’re wore Seen nor heard of to this day
And ne’er were seen nor heard of to this day.
10
Soe Serpents once the Egyptians did Anoy
So serpents once th’Egyptians did annoy;
11
Then Ibis came and did theſe Worms diſtroy
Then
Gloss Note
Edward Topsell’s History of Four-Footed Beasts indicates that, “of all other fowls enemies to serpents, there is none greater or more deadly, than the bird called ibis, which the Egyptians do wonderfully honor; for when swarms of serpents come into Egypt out of the Arabian gulfs and fens, these birds meet and destroy them.” London, 1658, p. 610.
ibis came and did these worms destroy
,
12
But with his putred ffilth hee ten times more
But with his putrid filth he ten times more
13
Afflicted them, then they were e’re before
Gloss Note
Egyptians were thought to cultivate and nourish the ibis to clean up garbage and pests, but this strategy backfired because of the filth and excrement that these birds left. See William Yonger’s sermon, The Unrighteous Judge (London, 1621), p. 20.
Afflicted them
than they were e’er before.
14
Physical Note
in left margin: “x Presbitery”, with “bitery” in different hand from main scribe
Soe
this Sad Kingdome xLocusts did o’re Run
Gloss Note
In the manuscript, a marginal note identifies the locusts who are overrunning the “sad kingdom” (England) as Presbyterians, an anti-Royalist faction.
So this sad kingdom locusts
did o’errun,
15
Such Clowds (Ay mee) as did Eclips the ^
Physical Note
“r” in double superscript
o:r
Sun
Such clouds (ay me!) as did eclipse our sun.
16
What houſs of this baſe Vermine then were free
What house of this base vermin then were free?
17
Physical Note
in left margin: “* Independ”, with “epend” in different hand from main scribe
Such
a like Armie let mee never See
Such a like army let me never see.
18
Then *Animal’s came were never Seen before
Then
Gloss Note
In the manuscript, a marginal note identifies the “animals” with the Independent faction in the civil wars.
an’mals
came
Gloss Note
that were
were
never seen before,
19
And put theſe down, none did their loſs deplore
And put
Gloss Note
the Presbyterians
these
down; none did their loss deplore.
20
Theſe Subtile Serpents over all did crawl
These
Gloss Note
shrewd; crafty; treacherous
subtle
serpents over all did crawl;
21
To Heaven for Remedy wee then did call
To
Gloss Note
pronounced here and two lines below as one syllable ("Heav'n")
Heaven
for remedy
Gloss Note
the supporters of Charles I in England
we
then did call.
22
Physical Note
in left margin: “*Protector”, with “tector” in different hand from main scribe
Then
*Ibis came and Swoll’d this whole ffrie
Then
Gloss Note
A marginal note in the manuscript identifies the ibis with “Protector,” a reference to Oliver Cromwell, entitled Lord Protector as head of state after the civil wars (1653-8); the title was subsequently passed to his son, Richard (1658-9).
ibis
came and swallowed this whole
Gloss Note
a collective term for young or insignificant beings, especially as of a crowd or swarm
fry
.
23
Some did Repent that they to Heaven did crie
Some did repent that they to Heaven did cry,
for

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
24
ffor all that Sacred was hee did pollute
For all that sacred was, he did pollute;
25
Yet let us once again to God make Sute
Yet let us once again to God make suit.
26
Who Knows the Tumid and Tumultuous Seas
Who knows? The
Gloss Note
swollen
tumid
and tumultuous seas
27
May bring a ffriend yt may o:r Suffrings Eas
May bring a friend that may our suff’rings ease.
28
Soe Rochill by A Shoal of Unknown ffiſh
Gloss Note
When Catholic troops besieged the coastal French town of La Rochelle in 1572 and 1573, a large number of fish washed ashore and saved the city from starvation, as the next line indicates. See The Protestant Reformation in France: History of the Hugenots (London, 1847), Vol. 2, 418-19.
So Rochelle, by a shoal of unknown fish
,
29
Out liv’d their Sieg above their hopes & Wiſh.
Outlived their siege above their hopes and wish.
X (Close panel)Notes: Elemental Edition

 Editorial note

The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.

 Headnote

Be careful what you wish for, since you just might get it; but don’t stop hoping, wishing, and praying, because who knows what might happen? So goes the (understandably) tangled moral in this response to the chaos of Britain’s civil wars and the ensuing interregnum. Creaturely images of parasites and predators form a concatenation of opaque references to infestations of animals (locusts, ibis, serpents), identified in the manuscript’s margin with specific factions and figures (Presbyterians, Cromwell, Independents). For Pulter, this poem is unusually explicit in identifying the political players involved. Despite the clarity suggested by such one-to-one allegories, the speaker’s zoological emblems primarily serve to show the challenge of choosing who to trust in times of civil upheaval, when seeming saviors can disappear, or even prove enemies in the end.
Line number 1

 Gloss note

In a discussion of locusts and “how they may be killed and driven away,” Edward Topsell includes this account of the Seleucides of Mount Cassian: “the inhabitants of the Mount Cassian [Caucasines] formerly obtained [the Seleucides] to be sent by Jupiter against the locusts that destroyed their corn. These birds come yearly to help them, but whither they fly back, or whence they come, no man can tell. So soon as the locusts are destroyed they forsake the mountain, and go home again.” History of Four-Footed Beasts, (London, 1658), p. 988.
Line number 2

 Gloss note

plants
Line number 3

 Gloss note

lament
Line number 11

 Gloss note

Edward Topsell’s History of Four-Footed Beasts indicates that, “of all other fowls enemies to serpents, there is none greater or more deadly, than the bird called ibis, which the Egyptians do wonderfully honor; for when swarms of serpents come into Egypt out of the Arabian gulfs and fens, these birds meet and destroy them.” London, 1658, p. 610.
Line number 13

 Gloss note

Egyptians were thought to cultivate and nourish the ibis to clean up garbage and pests, but this strategy backfired because of the filth and excrement that these birds left. See William Yonger’s sermon, The Unrighteous Judge (London, 1621), p. 20.
Line number 14

 Gloss note

In the manuscript, a marginal note identifies the locusts who are overrunning the “sad kingdom” (England) as Presbyterians, an anti-Royalist faction.
Line number 18

 Gloss note

In the manuscript, a marginal note identifies the “animals” with the Independent faction in the civil wars.
Line number 18

 Gloss note

that were
Line number 19

 Gloss note

the Presbyterians
Line number 20

 Gloss note

shrewd; crafty; treacherous
Line number 21

 Gloss note

pronounced here and two lines below as one syllable ("Heav'n")
Line number 21

 Gloss note

the supporters of Charles I in England
Line number 22

 Gloss note

A marginal note in the manuscript identifies the ibis with “Protector,” a reference to Oliver Cromwell, entitled Lord Protector as head of state after the civil wars (1653-8); the title was subsequently passed to his son, Richard (1658-9).
Line number 22

 Gloss note

a collective term for young or insignificant beings, especially as of a crowd or swarm
Line number 26

 Gloss note

swollen
Line number 28

 Gloss note

When Catholic troops besieged the coastal French town of La Rochelle in 1572 and 1573, a large number of fish washed ashore and saved the city from starvation, as the next line indicates. See The Protestant Reformation in France: History of the Hugenots (London, 1847), Vol. 2, 418-19.
Sorry, but there are no notes associated with any currently displayed witness.
X (Close panel)Elemental Edition
Elemental Edition

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
[Emblem 52]
The Caucasines
(Emblem 52)
AE TITLE
In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall


— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
Be careful what you wish for, since you just might get it; but don’t stop hoping, wishing, and praying, because who knows what might happen? So goes the (understandably) tangled moral in this response to the chaos of Britain’s civil wars and the ensuing interregnum. Creaturely images of parasites and predators form a concatenation of opaque references to infestations of animals (locusts, ibis, serpents), identified in the manuscript’s margin with specific factions and figures (Presbyterians, Cromwell, Independents). For Pulter, this poem is unusually explicit in identifying the political players involved. Despite the clarity suggested by such one-to-one allegories, the speaker’s zoological emblems primarily serve to show the challenge of choosing who to trust in times of civil upheaval, when seeming saviors can disappear, or even prove enemies in the end.

— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall


— Leah Knight and Wendy Wall
1
52The
Physical Note
“u.” directly above erased letter(s), perhaps “m” or “ni”; insertion in different hand from main scribe
Cau.caſines
with Locusts were anoy’d
Gloss Note
In a discussion of locusts and “how they may be killed and driven away,” Edward Topsell includes this account of the Seleucides of Mount Cassian: “the inhabitants of the Mount Cassian [Caucasines] formerly obtained [the Seleucides] to be sent by Jupiter against the locusts that destroyed their corn. These birds come yearly to help them, but whither they fly back, or whence they come, no man can tell. So soon as the locusts are destroyed they forsake the mountain, and go home again.” History of Four-Footed Beasts, (London, 1658), p. 988.
The Caucasines with locusts were annoyed
2
That all their
Physical Note
“s” added later in different hand from main scribe
Herbs
and ffruits were quite deſtroyd
That all their
Gloss Note
plants
herbs
and fruits were quite destroyed;
3
Whilst with Sad Hearts their Suffrings they deplore
Whilst with sad hearts their suff’rings they
Gloss Note
lament
deplore
,
4
And the aſſistance of the Gods implore
And the assistance of the gods implore,
5
The Selucides Birds never Seen before
The Seleucides birds, ne’er seen before,
6
With their united Strength and numerous power
With their united strength and num’rous power
7
Did inſtantly theſe Locusts all devour
Did instantly these locusts all devour.
8
Their Work being don they Straight fflew all away
Their work being done, they straight flew all away,
9
And ne’re wore Seen nor heard of to this day
And ne’er were seen nor heard of to this day.
10
Soe Serpents once the Egyptians did Anoy
So serpents once th’Egyptians did annoy;
11
Then Ibis came and did theſe Worms diſtroy
Then
Gloss Note
Edward Topsell’s History of Four-Footed Beasts indicates that, “of all other fowls enemies to serpents, there is none greater or more deadly, than the bird called ibis, which the Egyptians do wonderfully honor; for when swarms of serpents come into Egypt out of the Arabian gulfs and fens, these birds meet and destroy them.” London, 1658, p. 610.
ibis came and did these worms destroy
,
12
But with his putred ffilth hee ten times more
But with his putrid filth he ten times more
13
Afflicted them, then they were e’re before
Gloss Note
Egyptians were thought to cultivate and nourish the ibis to clean up garbage and pests, but this strategy backfired because of the filth and excrement that these birds left. See William Yonger’s sermon, The Unrighteous Judge (London, 1621), p. 20.
Afflicted them
than they were e’er before.
14
Physical Note
in left margin: “x Presbitery”, with “bitery” in different hand from main scribe
Soe
this Sad Kingdome xLocusts did o’re Run
Gloss Note
In the manuscript, a marginal note identifies the locusts who are overrunning the “sad kingdom” (England) as Presbyterians, an anti-Royalist faction.
So this sad kingdom locusts
did o’errun,
15
Such Clowds (Ay mee) as did Eclips the ^
Physical Note
“r” in double superscript
o:r
Sun
Such clouds (ay me!) as did eclipse our sun.
16
What houſs of this baſe Vermine then were free
What house of this base vermin then were free?
17
Physical Note
in left margin: “* Independ”, with “epend” in different hand from main scribe
Such
a like Armie let mee never See
Such a like army let me never see.
18
Then *Animal’s came were never Seen before
Then
Gloss Note
In the manuscript, a marginal note identifies the “animals” with the Independent faction in the civil wars.
an’mals
came
Gloss Note
that were
were
never seen before,
19
And put theſe down, none did their loſs deplore
And put
Gloss Note
the Presbyterians
these
down; none did their loss deplore.
20
Theſe Subtile Serpents over all did crawl
These
Gloss Note
shrewd; crafty; treacherous
subtle
serpents over all did crawl;
21
To Heaven for Remedy wee then did call
To
Gloss Note
pronounced here and two lines below as one syllable ("Heav'n")
Heaven
for remedy
Gloss Note
the supporters of Charles I in England
we
then did call.
22
Physical Note
in left margin: “*Protector”, with “tector” in different hand from main scribe
Then
*Ibis came and Swoll’d this whole ffrie
Then
Gloss Note
A marginal note in the manuscript identifies the ibis with “Protector,” a reference to Oliver Cromwell, entitled Lord Protector as head of state after the civil wars (1653-8); the title was subsequently passed to his son, Richard (1658-9).
ibis
came and swallowed this whole
Gloss Note
a collective term for young or insignificant beings, especially as of a crowd or swarm
fry
.
23
Some did Repent that they to Heaven did crie
Some did repent that they to Heaven did cry,
for

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder

Facsimile Image Placeholder
24
ffor all that Sacred was hee did pollute
For all that sacred was, he did pollute;
25
Yet let us once again to God make Sute
Yet let us once again to God make suit.
26
Who Knows the Tumid and Tumultuous Seas
Who knows? The
Gloss Note
swollen
tumid
and tumultuous seas
27
May bring a ffriend yt may o:r Suffrings Eas
May bring a friend that may our suff’rings ease.
28
Soe Rochill by A Shoal of Unknown ffiſh
Gloss Note
When Catholic troops besieged the coastal French town of La Rochelle in 1572 and 1573, a large number of fish washed ashore and saved the city from starvation, as the next line indicates. See The Protestant Reformation in France: History of the Hugenots (London, 1847), Vol. 2, 418-19.
So Rochelle, by a shoal of unknown fish
,
29
Out liv’d their Sieg above their hopes & Wiſh.
Outlived their siege above their hopes and wish.
X (Close panel) All Notes
Transcription

 Editorial note

In these transcriptions we preserve as many details of the original material, textual, and graphic properties of Hester Pulter’s manuscript verse as we have found practical. Whenever possible, for instance, original spelling, punctuation, capitalization, lineation, insertions, deletions, alterations, spacing between words and lines, and indentation are all maintained; abbreviations and brevigraphs are not expanded; and superscript and subscript representations are retained. See full conventions for the transcriptions here.
Elemental Edition

 Editorial note

The aim of the elemental edition is to make the poems accessible to the largest variety of readers, which involves modernizing spelling and punctuation as well as adding basic glosses. Spelling and punctuation reflect current standard American usage; punctuation highlights syntax which might otherwise be obscure. Outmoded but still familiar word forms (“thou,” “‘tis,” “hold’st”) are not modernized, and we do not modernize grammar when the sense remains legible. After a brief headnote aimed at offering a “way in” to the poem’s unique qualities and connections with other verse by Pulter or her contemporaries, the edition features a minimum of notes and interpretative framing to allow more immediate engagement with the poem. Glosses clarify synonyms or showcase various possible meanings in Pulter’s time. Other notes identify named people and places or clarify obscure material. We rely (without citation) primarily on the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the Oxford Reference database, and the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. When we rely on Alice Eardley’s edition of Pulter’s work, we cite her text generally (“Eardley”); other sources are cited in full. The result is an edition we consider a springboard for further work on Pulter’s poetry. See full conventions for this edition here.
Amplified Edition

 Editorial note

Elemental Edition

 Headnote

Be careful what you wish for, since you just might get it; but don’t stop hoping, wishing, and praying, because who knows what might happen? So goes the (understandably) tangled moral in this response to the chaos of Britain’s civil wars and the ensuing interregnum. Creaturely images of parasites and predators form a concatenation of opaque references to infestations of animals (locusts, ibis, serpents), identified in the manuscript’s margin with specific factions and figures (Presbyterians, Cromwell, Independents). For Pulter, this poem is unusually explicit in identifying the political players involved. Despite the clarity suggested by such one-to-one allegories, the speaker’s zoological emblems primarily serve to show the challenge of choosing who to trust in times of civil upheaval, when seeming saviors can disappear, or even prove enemies in the end.
Amplified Edition

 Headnote

Transcription
Line number 1

 Physical note

“u.” directly above erased letter(s), perhaps “m” or “ni”; insertion in different hand from main scribe
Elemental Edition
Line number 1

 Gloss note

In a discussion of locusts and “how they may be killed and driven away,” Edward Topsell includes this account of the Seleucides of Mount Cassian: “the inhabitants of the Mount Cassian [Caucasines] formerly obtained [the Seleucides] to be sent by Jupiter against the locusts that destroyed their corn. These birds come yearly to help them, but whither they fly back, or whence they come, no man can tell. So soon as the locusts are destroyed they forsake the mountain, and go home again.” History of Four-Footed Beasts, (London, 1658), p. 988.
Transcription
Line number 2

 Physical note

“s” added later in different hand from main scribe
Elemental Edition
Line number 2

 Gloss note

plants
Elemental Edition
Line number 3

 Gloss note

lament
Elemental Edition
Line number 11

 Gloss note

Edward Topsell’s History of Four-Footed Beasts indicates that, “of all other fowls enemies to serpents, there is none greater or more deadly, than the bird called ibis, which the Egyptians do wonderfully honor; for when swarms of serpents come into Egypt out of the Arabian gulfs and fens, these birds meet and destroy them.” London, 1658, p. 610.
Elemental Edition
Line number 13

 Gloss note

Egyptians were thought to cultivate and nourish the ibis to clean up garbage and pests, but this strategy backfired because of the filth and excrement that these birds left. See William Yonger’s sermon, The Unrighteous Judge (London, 1621), p. 20.
Transcription
Line number 14

 Physical note

in left margin: “x Presbitery”, with “bitery” in different hand from main scribe
Elemental Edition
Line number 14

 Gloss note

In the manuscript, a marginal note identifies the locusts who are overrunning the “sad kingdom” (England) as Presbyterians, an anti-Royalist faction.
Transcription
Line number 15

 Physical note

“r” in double superscript
Transcription
Line number 17

 Physical note

in left margin: “* Independ”, with “epend” in different hand from main scribe
Elemental Edition
Line number 18

 Gloss note

In the manuscript, a marginal note identifies the “animals” with the Independent faction in the civil wars.
Elemental Edition
Line number 18

 Gloss note

that were
Elemental Edition
Line number 19

 Gloss note

the Presbyterians
Elemental Edition
Line number 20

 Gloss note

shrewd; crafty; treacherous
Elemental Edition
Line number 21

 Gloss note

pronounced here and two lines below as one syllable ("Heav'n")
Elemental Edition
Line number 21

 Gloss note

the supporters of Charles I in England
Transcription
Line number 22

 Physical note

in left margin: “*Protector”, with “tector” in different hand from main scribe
Elemental Edition
Line number 22

 Gloss note

A marginal note in the manuscript identifies the ibis with “Protector,” a reference to Oliver Cromwell, entitled Lord Protector as head of state after the civil wars (1653-8); the title was subsequently passed to his son, Richard (1658-9).
Elemental Edition
Line number 22

 Gloss note

a collective term for young or insignificant beings, especially as of a crowd or swarm
Elemental Edition
Line number 26

 Gloss note

swollen
Elemental Edition
Line number 28

 Gloss note

When Catholic troops besieged the coastal French town of La Rochelle in 1572 and 1573, a large number of fish washed ashore and saved the city from starvation, as the next line indicates. See The Protestant Reformation in France: History of the Hugenots (London, 1847), Vol. 2, 418-19.
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